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New ECX09K1LAA-R Eaton Electrical Enclosed Motor Starter

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Condition:
New: A brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging (where packaging is ...
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ECX09K1LAA-R
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New ECX09K1LAA-R Eaton Electrical Enclosed Motor Starter

Islomizm ma'nosi jamoat va ilmiy kontekstda muhokama qilingan tushunchadir.[1] Ushbu atama jamoat va siyosiy hayotni boshqarishi kerak bo'lgan turli xil ijtimoiy va siyosiy faolliklarni nazarda tutishi mumkin Islom asoslari[1][2] yoki aniqrog'i to'liq amalga oshirishni talab qiladigan harakatlarga shariat (Islomiy tartib yoki qonun). Kabi atamalar bilan bir-birining o'rnida keng qo'llaniladi siyosiy Islom yoki Islom fundamentalizmi, bu atamaga bir nechta ma'no berish va turli tushunchalarga murojaat qilish.[3] Akademik foydalanishda bu atama Islomizm "Islomiy tartib" yoki shariatning qanday qarashlari targ'ib qilinayotgani yoki advokatlar ushbu qarashni qanday amalga oshirmoqchi ekanliklariga aniqlik kiritilmagan.[4] G'arb ommaviy axborot vositalarida shariat asosidagi islomiy davlatni barpo etish, ko'pincha zo'ravonlik taktikasi va inson huquqlarini buzish bilan bog'liq bo'lgan va siyosiy ekstremizmning mazmun-mohiyatiga ega bo'lgan guruhlarga murojaat qilish moyil. Musulmon dunyosida bu atama tarafdorlari orasida ijobiy ma'noga ega.[3]

Islomiy fikrning turli oqimlari qatoriga davlat hokimiyatini amalga oshirish orqali jamiyatni islomlashtirishning "inqilobiy" strategiyasini va navbat bilan jamiyatni ijtimoiy va siyosiy faollik orqali qayta islomlashtirishning "islohotchi" strategiyasini himoya qilish kiradi.[5] Islomchilar shariatning amalga oshirilishini ta'kidlashlari mumkin;[6] panislomiy siyosiy birlik,[6] shu jumladan Islom davlati;[7] yoki musulmon bo'lmaganlarni tanlab olib tashlash, xususan G'arbiy tarkibidagi harbiy, iqtisodiy, siyosiy, ijtimoiy yoki madaniy ta'sirlar Musulmon olami ular Islomga mos kelmaydi, deb hisoblashadi.[6]

Grem Fuller shakli sifatida kengroq islomizm tushunchasini ilgari surdi iolo System Shield Antivirus and Anti Spyware (1 Year) (eDeliver"[musulmonlarning] o'ziga xosligini, haqiqiyligini, kengroq regionalizmni, jonlanishni va [jamiyatni jonlantirishni] qo'llab-quvvatlashni" o'z ichiga oladi.[8] Ba'zi mualliflar "islomiy faollik" atamasini "islomizm" ga o'xshash ma'noda va afzal deb bilishadi,[9] va Gannuchi yetib keldi islomchilar "islomiy harakat" atamasidan o'zlari foydalanishni afzal ko'rishlarini yozmoqda.[10]

Yigirmanchi asr Islomchiligining markaziy va taniqli arboblari kiradi Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb, Abul A'la Maududiy,[11] va Ruxolloh Xomeyni.[12] Aksariyat islomiy mutafakkirlar zamonaviy islomchilarning aksariyati tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanadigan tinch siyosiy jarayonlarni ta'kidlaydilar.[13] Boshqalar, xususan, Sayyid Qutb zo'ravonlikka chaqirgan va uning izdoshlari odatda hisobga olinadi Islomiy ekstremistlar, Qutb aybsizlarning o'ldirilishini qoralasa ham.[14]Ga binoan Robin Rayt, Islomiy harakatlar "munozarali ravishda zamonaviy davlatlar mustaqillikka erishgandan beri Yaqin Sharqni har qanday tendentsiyadan ko'proq o'zgartirdi", "siyosat va hatto chegaralarni" qayta belgilab berdi.[15] Keyingi Arab bahori, ba'zi islomiy oqimlar demokratiya siyosatiga katta aralashdilar,[15][16] boshqalari esa bugungi kungacha "eng tajovuzkor va shuhratparast islomiy militsiyani" tug'dirgan, IShID.[15]

Terminologiya

Atama Islomizmdastlab Islom dinini ko'rsatgan, birinchi bo'lib ingliz tilida paydo bo'lgan Islomizm 1696 yilda va boshqalar Islomizm 1712 yilda.[17] Ushbu muddat AQSh Oliy sudining qarorida ko'rinadi Re Rossda (1891). Yigirmanchi asrning boshlarida "Islom" ning qisqaroq va sof arabcha atamasi uning o'rnini bosa boshladi va 1938 yilga kelib, sharqshunos olimlar so'zlarini yakunladilar The Islom entsiklopediyasi, Islomizm ingliz tilidan deyarli yo'qolganga o'xshaydi.[12][18]

"Islomizm" atamasi 1970 yillarning oxiri va 80-yillarning boshlarida Frantsiya akademiyasida o'zining zamonaviy mazmuniga ega bo'ldi. Frantsuz tilidan 1980-yillarning o'rtalarida ingliz tiliga o'tishni boshlagan va so'nggi yillarda bu atamani asosan o'zgartirgan Islom fundamentalizmi akademik doiralarda.[12]

"Islomizm" atamasining yangi ishlatilishi dastlab "yangi islomiy harakatlarga xayrixoh bo'lgan olimlar uchun belgi" bo'lib xizmat qildi; ammo, bu atama mashhurlikka erishgan sari u kabi siyosiy guruhlar bilan yanada aniqroq bog'lanib bordi Toliblar yoki jazoirlik Qurollangan Islomiy guruh, shuningdek, ommaviy ravishda e'lon qilingan zo'ravonlik harakatlari bilan.[12]

Bu atamani ishlatishga qarshi chiqishgan va o'zlarini shunchaki "musulmon" deb ta'kidlagan "islomchilar" kiradi Oyatulloh Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah (1935-2010), ma'naviy ustozi Hizbullohva Abbassi Madani (1931-), Jazoir rahbari Islom najot fronti.[12]

2003 yildagi maqola Yaqin Sharq har chorakda aytadi:

Xulosa qilib aytganda, islomizm atamasi Volterdan to oxirigacha davom etgan birinchi yurishidan zavq oldi Birinchi jahon urushi, Islomning sinonimi sifatida. Odatda ma'rifatli olimlar va yozuvchilar buni afzal ko'rishgan Mohammedanism. Oxir oqibat, har ikkala atama Islomga, ya'ni arabcha e'tiqod nomiga va pejorativ yoki qiyosiy assotsiatsiyalardan mahrum bo'lgan so'zga ega bo'ldi. Islomning g'oyaviy va siyosiy talqini ko'tarilguncha, olimlar va sharhlovchilar muqobil variantni taklif qilishlariga, islomni zamonaviy mafkura sifatida islom dinidan e'tiqod sifatida ajratib ko'rsatishga qadar, boshqa biron bir atamaga hojat yo'q edi ... Barcha niyat va maqsadlarga , Islom fundamentalizmi va islomizm zamonaviy Amerika qo'llanilishida sinonimlarga aylandi.[12]

The Amerika-Islom aloqalari bo'yicha kengash 2013 yilda shikoyat qilgan Associated Press"Islomchi" ta'rifi - "Islom qonunlariga binoan hukumat tarafdori [va] Qur'onni siyosiy model deb biladigan" - bu "biz yoqtirmaydigan musulmonlar" uchun plyorativ stenografiyaga aylandi.[19] Sotsiolog Mansur Moaddel Sharqiy Michigan universiteti, uni "yaxshi atama emas" deb tanqid qildi, chunki "islomchi atamasi ishlatilishi bir xil bo'lmagan hodisalarni qamrab olmaydi".[20]

The AP Stylebook uchun kirish Islomchi 2013 yildan boshlab quyidagicha o'qiydi:[21]

"Islomda belgilangan qonunlar asosida hukumat va jamiyatni boshqarishni qo'llab-quvvatlaydigan siyosiy harakatning himoyachisi yoki tarafdori. Islomchi bo'lishi mumkin yoki bo'lmasligi mumkin bo'lgan islomiy jangarilar, jangarilar, ekstremistlar yoki radikallar uchun sinonim sifatida foydalanmang. Iloji bo'lsa, Qur'onni siyosiy model deb biladiganlar musulmonlarning keng doirasini qamrab oladilar, aksariyat siyosatchilardan tortib to jihod nomi bilan tanilgan jangarilargacha. "Al-Qoida bilan bog'langan, Hizbulloh, Tolibon va boshqalar.

Umumiy nuqtai

Ta'riflar

Islomizm quyidagicha ta'riflangan:

  • "Islom ijtimoiy va siyosiy, shuningdek shaxsiy hayotga rahbarlik qilishi kerak degan e'tiqod",[22]
  • "diniy siyosat" shakli va misoli diniy fundamentalizm[23]
  • "Islom tomonidan belgilangan qonunlarga muvofiq hukumat va jamiyatni boshqarishni ma'qullaydigan siyosiy harakat" (dan Associated Press"islomchi" ning ta'rifi)[19]
  • "[" islomchi "atamasi" biz yoqtirmaydigan "musulmonlar uchun stenografiyaga aylandi" "(dan Amerika-Islom aloqalari bo'yicha kengashAPning islomiyni ilgari bergan ta'rifidan shikoyat)[19]
  • "Islomning har qanday versiyasini jamiyat ustiga o'rnatishga intiladigan teokratik mafkura qonun bilan". (Maajid Navoz, sobiq islomchi tanqidchiga aylandi[24]). Keyinchalik, "Islomga berilgan har qanday talqinni jamiyatga tatbiq etish istagi" deb aniqlandi.[25]
  • "butun jamiyatni boshqaradigan va qonunni o'rgatadigan [islomiy] mafkura islom shariati bilan mos bo'lishi kerak",[26]
  • bu atama "begona odamlar tomonidan o'zlarining Islom dinini qattiq va harakatsiz narsa, shunchaki qabila mansubligi sifatida noto'g'ri qabul qilishlarini oqlaydi deb o'ylaydigan faoliyat yo'nalishini belgilash uchun ishlatilgan."[12][27]
  • shunchalik keng va moslashuvchan harakatki, u Islomda "hamma hamma uchun" etib boradi va uni "beqaror" qiladi.[28]
    • kambag'al omma uchun muqobil ijtimoiy ta'minotchi;
    • ko'ngli qolgan yosh uchun g'azablangan platforma;
    • kimligini izlayotganlarga "sof dinga qaytish" ni e'lon qiladigan baland karnay-chaqiriq;
    • boy va liberallar uchun "progressiv, mo''tadil diniy platforma";
    • ... va radikallar va radikallar uchun zo'ravonlik vositasi.[28]
  • G'arbdan madaniy farqlash va mustamlakachilikgacha bo'lgan ramziy olam bilan qayta bog'lanishni istagan islomiy harakat ",[29]
  • "zamonaviy siyosiy muammolarni musulmon matnlariga murojaat qilgan holda hal qilishga intilgan uyushgan siyosiy tendentsiya [...] [...] jamiyatga Islomga investitsiya kiritishga intiladigan butun fikrlar jamiyati, bu integratsion, ammo an'anaviy bo'lishi mumkin, islohotchi va hatto inqilobiy "[30]
  • "Islomiy xarakterga ega bo'lgan e'tiqodlar, ko'rsatmalar, qonunlar yoki siyosatni faol tasdiqlash va targ'ib qilish"[9]
  • "siyosiy faoliyatni ilhomlantirish, shakllantirish va jonlantirish uchun Islomga ishonchi, ramzlari va tilidan foydalanadigan musulmonlar" harakati; tarkibida mo''tadil, bag'rikeng, tinchliksevar faollar yoki "murosasizlikni targ'ib qiluvchi va zo'ravonlikni qo'llab-quvvatlaydiganlar" bo'lishi mumkin.[31]
  • "O'z atrofini islomlashtirishga intilayotganlarning hammasi, xoh jamiyatdagi hayoti, oilaviy sharoiti yoki ish joyi bilan bog'liq holda, islomchilar deb ta'riflanishi mumkin." [32]

Turlar

Islomizm turli shakllarda bo'lib, mavjud kuchlarga nisbatan keng strategiya va taktikalarni qamrab oladi - "yo'q qilish, qarshilik ko'rsatish, hamkorlik, befarqlik"[33] "holatlar o'zgargan" deb o'zgargan[34]- va shuning uchun birlashgan harakat emas.

Demokratik jarayonni qabul qiladigan va ular doirasida ishlaydigan mo''tadil va islohotchi islomchilar Tunis singari partiyalarni o'z ichiga oladi Ennahda harakati. Jamoat-i-Islomiy Pokiston asosan ijtimoiy-siyosiy va demokratikdir Vanguard partiyasi shuningdek, harbiy ta'sir orqali siyosiy ta'sirga ega bo'ldi davlat to'ntarishi oldin.[33] Boshqa islomiy guruhlarga yoqadi Hizbulloh yilda Livan va HAMAS yilda Falastin demokratik va siyosiy jarayonlarda hamda qurolli hujumlarda qatnashish. Jihodchi kabi tashkilotlar al-Qoida va Misr Islomiy Jihodkabi guruhlar Toliblar, butunlay rad eting demokratiya, deb ko'pincha e'lon qiladi kofir uni qo'llab-quvvatlaydigan musulmonlar (qarang takfirizm), shuningdek, zo'ravonlikka chaqirish /tajovuzkor jihod yoki undash va o'tkazish hujumlar diniy asosda.

Islomizm ichidagi yana bir katta bo'linish - bu nima o'rtasidagi Grem E. Fuller fundamentalist "an'ana qo'riqchilari" deb ta'riflagan (Salafiylar, masalan Vahhobiy harakati) va atrofida joylashgan "o'zgarish va islohotlarning avangardlari" Musulmon birodarlar.[35] Olivier Roy "Sunniy panislomizm 20-asrning ikkinchi yarmida ajoyib siljishlarni boshdan kechirdi", deb ta'kidlaydi Musulmon Birodarlar harakati va uning islomlashtirishga yo'naltirilganligi panarabizm tomonidan tutilgan Salafiylar "Islom institutlarini qurish o'rniga" shariat va shia islomni rad etishga urg'u beradigan harakat.[36] Arab bahoridan keyin Roy islomizmni arab musulmon dunyosining aksariyat qismida demokratiya bilan "tobora bir-biriga bog'liq" deb ta'riflagan, chunki "endi boshqasi bo'lmasdan hech kim yashay olmaydi". Islomiy siyosiy madaniyatning o'zi demokratik bo'lmasligi mumkin bo'lsa-da, islomchilar qonuniyligini saqlab qolish uchun demokratik saylovlarga muhtoj. Shu bilan birga, ularning mashhurligi shuki, biron bir hukumat o'zini asosiy islomiy guruhlarni istisno qiladigan demokratik deb atay olmaydi.[16]

Islom bilan munosabat

Islom va islomizm tushunchalarining o'zaro munosabatlari kelishmovchiliklarga olib keldi.

Xayri Abazaning ta'kidlashicha, Islom va islomiylikni farqlay olmaganlik G'arbda ko'pchilikni g'ayritabiiy islomiy rejimlarni qo'llab-quvvatlashga olib keladi, bu esa dinni siyosatdan ajratishga intilayotgan progressiv mo''tadil kishilarga zarar etkazadi.[37]Farqli o'laroq, Obid Ullah Jan, yozadi "Agar Islom hayot tarzi bo'lsa, qanday qilib hayotning huquqiy, ijtimoiy, siyosiy, iqtisodiy va siyosiy sohalarida uning tamoyillari asosida yashashni istaganlar musulmonlar emas, balki islomchilar va islomizmga ishonadi, deb emas. [faqat] Islom. "[38] Uchun yozuvchi Xalqaro inqiroz guruhi "siyosiy islom" tushunchasi "tushuntirish uchun amerikaliklarning yaratilishi" deb ta'kidlaydi Eron Islom inqilobi va siyosiy bo'lmagan Islom "1945-1970 yillarda dunyoviy arab millatchiligi gullab-yashnagan qisqa davr" ning tarixiy shov-shuvidir. jimjit/ tushuntirishni talab qiladigan islomizm emas, siyosiy bo'lmagan Islom.[39]

Boshqa bir manba islomni islom dinidan ajratib turibdi, "ikkinchisi ming yillik davomida mavjud bo'lgan din va madaniyatga ishora qiladi, birinchisi esa 20-asrning buyuk voqealari bilan bog'liq bo'lgan siyosiy / diniy hodisa". Islomchilar, hech bo'lmaganda, ba'zida o'zlarini "muslimun / musulmonlar" dan ajratish uchun o'zlarini "islomiyyun / islomchilar" deb ta'riflashgan.[40] Daniel Pipes islomiylikni an'anaviy islom dinidan ko'ra ko'proq evropalik utopik siyosiy mafkura va "izm" larga qarzdor bo'lgan zamonaviy mafkura sifatida tavsiflaydi.[41]

Ta'sir

Kam sonli kuzatuvchilar islomizmning ta'siriga qarshi chiqishmoqda Musulmon olami.[42][43][44] Keyingi Sovet Ittifoqining qulashi, asoslangan siyosiy harakatlar liberal erkin ifoda mafkurasi va demokratik boshqaruv dunyoning boshqa qismlaridagi oppozitsiyani olib keldi lotin Amerikasi, Sharqiy Evropa va ko'p qismlari Osiyo; ammo "oddiy haqiqat shundaki, siyosiy islom hozirgi kunda butun musulmon olamidagi eng qudratli mafkuraviy kuch sifatida hukmronlik qilmoqda".[45][46]

Odamlar musulmon dunyosidagi o'zgarmas ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy holatni asosiy omil deb bilishadi. Olivye Roy "islomiy to'lqinni qo'llab-quvvatlagan ijtimoiy-iqtisodiy voqeliklar hanuzgacha mavjud va o'zgarmaydi: qashshoqlik, ildiz otish, qadriyatlar va o'ziga xoslik inqirozi, ta'lim tizimlarining tanazzulga uchrashi, shimoliy-janubiy muxolifat va muhojirlar muammosi. mezbon jamiyatlarga integratsiya ".[47]

Islomizmning kuchi, shuningdek, umuman musulmon dunyosidagi dindorlik kuchidan kelib chiqadi. G'arb jamiyatlari bilan taqqoslaganda, "Islom dunyosi shafqatsizligi shundan iboratki ... unga eng kam ta'sir ko'rsatgan ko'rinadi dinsizlik".[43] Musulmon olamida ota-bobolari kitob uchun eng yaxshi deb topgan sohalarda boshqa xalqlar fizik yoki ijtimoiy fanlardan javob izlashlari mumkin bo'lgan joylarda, din "so'nggi bir necha o'n yilliklarda" bo'lgani kabi kam emas, qamrab oladigan bo'lib qoldi. tobora ko'proq musulmon madaniyati "qirrasini" namoyish etgan fundamentalistlar.[43]

Arab bahoridan oldin ham Misrdagi va boshqa musulmon mamlakatlaridagi islomchilar "nihoyatda ta'sirchan ... deb ta'riflangan edilar ... Ular qanday kiyinishini, nimani yeyishini aniqlaydilar. Bu sohalarda ular nihoyatda muvaffaqiyatli. ... Islomchilar bo'lsa ham hech qachon hokimiyatga kelmang, ular o'z davlatlarini o'zgartirdilar. "[48] Demokratik, tinch va siyosiy islomchilar hozirgi paytda Islomiy mafkura spektrida hamda siyosiy tizimda hukmronlik qilmoqda Musulmon olami. O'rtacha islomizm turlari "Turkiya, Tunis, Malayziya va Indoneziya kabi joylarda demokratik jamoat maydonida raqobatlashish" deb ta'riflangan.[49]

Turlari

O'rtacha islomizm

O'rtacha islomizm - bu paydo bo'layotgan islomiy nutq va harakatlar, ular 20-asr o'rtalarida an'anaviy islomiy nutqlardan chetlangan deb hisoblanadi.[50] O'rtacha islomizm, aksariyat hollarda, mavjud konstitutsiyaviy va siyosiy doirada pragmatik ishtirok etish bilan tavsiflanadi demokratik institut.[51] O'rtacha islomchilar zamonaviy islomiy harakatlarning aksariyat qismini tashkil qiladi.[13] Falsafiy nuqtai nazardan ularning nutqlari G'arbdan olib kirilgan zamonaviy ijtimoiy-siyosiy institutlar va qadriyatlarni, shu jumladan demokratiyani isloh qilish yoki qayta talqin qilish bilan ifodalanadi.[35][52] Bu esa bunday muassasalarning islomiy shakli tushunchasiga olib keldi va ko'pincha ushbu kontseptsiya doirasida islomiy talqin qilishga urinib ko'riladi. Demokratiya misolida, Islom demokratiyasi tizimning islomlashtirilgan shakli sifatida intellektual jihatdan rivojlangan. Islom demokratiyasida, tushunchasi shura, deb hisoblanadigan maslahat an'anasi Sunnat ning payg'ambar Muhammad, demokratiya institutini islomiy ravishda qayta talqin qilish va qonuniylashtirishga chaqiriladi.[52][53][54]

Mo''tadil islomiy harakatlarning faoliyati, maqsadi, strategiyasi va natijalari mamlakatga va uning ijtimoiy-siyosiy va tarixiy sharoitlariga qarab ancha farq qiladi. Faoliyat nuqtai nazaridan islomiy siyosiy partiyalarning aksariyati oppozitsiyalardir. Biroq, ular boshqaradigan yoki ommaviy ovozlarning katta miqdorini oladigan misollar kam. Bunga quyidagilar kiradi Milliy Kongress ning Sudan, Milliy Iroq Ittifoqi Iroq va Adolat va taraqqiyot partiyasi (PJD) Marokash. Ularning maqsadi ham keng doirada. The Ennahda harakati ning Tunis[55] va Obod Adolat partiyasi (PKS) ning Indoneziya[56] rasman shariatni amalga oshirish haqidagi qarashlaridan voz kechishdi. Marokashda PJD qo'llab-quvvatladi Shoh Muhammad VI"s Muduvana, "ajabtovur progressiv oila qonuni", ayollarga ajralish huquqini beradi, nikoh uchun eng kam yoshni 18 ga ko'taradi va ajralib chiqqan taqdirda mol-mulkni teng taqsimlashni nazarda tutadi.[48] Aksincha, Sudan Milliy Kongressi konservativ davlatlarning xorijiy ko'magi bilan shar'iy qat'iy talqinni amalga oshirdi.[57][58] Avvalgi toifadagi harakatlar, shuningdek, deb nomlanadi Islomdan keyingi davr (pastga qarang). Ularning siyosiy natijalari ularning maqsadi va strategiyasiga bog'liq bo'lib, tahlilchilar "inklyuziya-moderatsiya nazariyasi" deb atashadi. Inklyuziv-moderatsiya nazariyasi, islomchilar qanchalik yumshoqroq bo'lsalar, ularning omon qolishlariga tahdid solishi ehtimolini kamaytiradi. Xuddi shunday, hukumat qanchalik qoniqarli bo'lsa, shunchalik haddan ziyod islomchilar bo'lmaydilar.[59]

Demokratik institut ichidagi mo''tadil islomizm nisbatan yaqinda yuzaga kelgan hodisadir.[51] 80-90-yillarda butun kabi yirik mo''tadil islomiy harakatlar Musulmon birodarlar va Ennahda demokratik siyosiy ishtirokdan chetlashtirildi. Davlat doirasida olib borilgan islomiy harakatlar davomida jiddiy tekshirildi Jazoir fuqarolar urushi (1991-2002) va ortgandan keyin Misrdagi terrorizm 90-yillarda. Ushbu muvaffaqiyatsizliklar haqida mulohaza yuritib, islomchilar tobora ko'proq revizionistik va 21-asrda demokratik protseduralarga moyil bo'lishdi.[51] Kabi kontseptsiya bilan G'arb ziyolilari orasida modernist islomizmning ushbu yangi to'lqinini joylashtirish imkoniyati o'rganilgan Turkiya modeli taklif qilingan. Kontseptsiya turk tilining muvaffaqiyatidan ilhomlangan Adolat va taraqqiyot partiyasi (AKP) boshchiligida Rajab Toyyib Erdo'g'an dunyoviy davlat doirasida islomiy tamoyillarni uyg'unlashtirishda.[60] Ammo turkiyalik model keyinchalik "to'xtovsiz" deb topildi Erdog'an rejimi tomonidan so'nggi paytlarda olib borilgan tozalash va demokratik tamoyillarni buzish.[61][62] Kontseptsiyani tanqid qiluvchilar islomiy intilishlar demokratik tamoyillarga mutlaqo mos kelmaydi, shuning uchun mo''tadil islomchilar ham totalitar tabiatda. Shunday qilib, bu kuchli konstitutsiyaviy tekshiruvlarni va asosiy Islom dinidan ajralib chiqish uchun harakatlarni talab qiladi siyosiy Islom jamoat nutqlaridan.[63]

Islomdan keyingi davr

Islomdan keyingi davr eronlik siyosiy sotsiolog tomonidan taklif qilingan atama Asef Bayat20-asr o'rtalaridagi an'anaviy islomiy nutqlardan tanqidiy ravishda chiqib ketish bilan ajralib turadigan islomiy harakatlarga ishora qilmoqda.[64]:4 Bayat buni "eksperimentlar bosqichidan so'ng islomizmning jozibasi, kuchi, ramzlari va qonuniy manbalari, hattoki bir paytlar ashaddiy tarafdorlari orasida ham charchashining sharti bilan izohladi. Shunday qilib, post-islomizm islomga qarshi emas, aksincha dinni resekulyarizatsiya qilish tendentsiyasini aks ettiradi. " Dastlab u faqat Eronga taalluqli bo'lib, u erda "post-islomizm islom (shaxsiy e'tiqod sifatida) va shaxsning erkinligi va tanlovi o'rtasida birlashish g'oyasida ifodalangan; va post-islomizm demokratiya qadriyatlari va tomonlari bilan bog'liq zamonaviylik".[65]:45 2008 yil Lowy xalqaro siyosat instituti Indoneziyaning PKS va Turkiyaning AKP islomdan keyingi deb taxmin qilmoqda.[66]:51, 76 Xarakteristikani qo'llash mumkin Malayziya Islomiy partiyasi (PAS),[67] va Tunis Ennahda ichidagi "g'oyaviy evolyutsiyani" tasvirlash uchun foydalanilgan.[68]

Salafiylar harakati

Zamonaviy Salafiylar harakati islohotchilar missiyasiga sherik bo'lgan ultrakonservativ islomiy ta'limotlarning keng doirasini o'z ichiga oladi Ibn Taymiya. Siyosiy islom nuqtai nazaridan salafiylik harakatini keng uch guruhga bo'lish mumkin; The jimjit (yoki purist), aktivist (yoki haraki) va jihodchi (Salafiylik jihodizmi, pastga qarang). Jim maktab maktabni siyosiy faollikdan ko'ra diniy ta'lim berish va dinni targ'ib qilish orqali jamiyatni isloh qilish tarafdori. Faollar maktabi, aksincha, konstitutsiyaviy va siyosiy doiradagi siyosiy ishtirokni rag'batlantiradi. Jihodchilar maktabi mafkurasidan ilhomlangan Sayyid Qutb (Kutbizm, quyida qarang) va dunyoviy institutlarning qonuniyligini rad etadi va yangi tashkil etish uchun yo'l ochish uchun inqilobni targ'ib qiladi. Xalifalik.[69]

Sessiz salafiylar harakati ta'limotidan kelib chiqadi Nosiruddin Albani, kim tushunchasiga qarshi chiqdi taqlid (taqlid qilish, qonuniy pretsedentga muvofiqlik) ko'r-ko'rona rioya qilish. Shunday qilib, ular siyosiy ishtirokni musulmon jamoasining bo'linishiga olib kelishi mumkinligi haqida ogohlantirmoqdalar.[69] Ushbu maktabga misol keltirilgan Madxalizm ning yozuvlari asosida Rabiy al-Madxali.[70] Madxalizm 90-yillarda Saudiya Arabistonida, salafiylar faolligining ko'tarilishiga va salafiy jihodizmi tahdidiga qarshi reaktsiya sifatida paydo bo'lgan. U dunyoviy boshqaruvga qarshi har qanday qarshilikni rad etadi,[71] Shunday qilib. tomonidan tasdiqlangan avtoritar 90-yillar davomida Misr va Saudiya Arabistoni hukumatlari.[72] So'nggi paytlarda Sessist maktabning ta'siri Yaqin Sharqda sezilarli darajada pasayib ketdi,[73] chunki hukumat xalq talabidan kelib chiqadigan islomiy fraksiyalarni birlashtira boshladi.[74][75]

Siyosiy faol salafiylik harakati, salafiylar faolligi yoki harakis, Xudoning Ilohiy boshqaruvini himoya qilish uchun zo'ravonliksiz siyosiy faollikni qo'llab-quvvatlovchi diniy e'tiqodga asoslanadi. Demak, siyosat - bu jamiyat va hayotning boshqa jihatlari bilan bir xilda, salafiylik tamoyillarini qo'llashni talab qiladigan soha.[69] Salafiylar faolligi Saudiya Arabistonining ko'plab musulmon birodarlari tomonidan prokuratura tomonidan panoh topgan 50-60 yillarda paydo bo'lgan. Nosir tartib.[76] U erda musulmon birodarlarning islomiyligi salafiylik bilan sintez qilingan va salafiylik oqimining paydo bo'lishiga olib kelgan. Sahva harakati 80-yillarda,[69] tomonidan e'lon qilingan Safar al-Havali va Salmon al-Ouda. Bugungi kunda maktab salafiylikning aksariyat qismini tashkil qiladi.[77] Musulmon olamida ko'plab faol salafiy siyosiy partiyalar mavjud, shu jumladan Al Nur partiyasi Misr, Al Isloh ning Yaman va Al Asalah ning Bahrayn.

Vahhobiylik

Zamonaviy salafiylar oqimining ilgari Vahhobiylik, bu 18-asrdagi islohotlar harakatidan boshlanadi Najd tomonidan Muhammad ibn Abdul al-Vahhob. Garchi turli xil ildizlarga ega bo'lsa-da, 60-yillarda Saudiya Arabistonida vahhobiylik va salafiylik ozmi-ko'pmi birlashtirilgan deb hisoblanadi.[78][79][80] Bu jarayonda salafizmga vahhobiylik katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi va bugungi kunda ular xuddi shunday diniy qarashlarga ega.[80] Vahobiylik, shuningdek, Saudiya salafizm brendi sifatida tavsiflanadi.[81][82] Siyosiy nuqtai nazardan, vahhobiylik ta'limotida ajralib turadi bay'at (bay'at qasamyodi), bu musulmonlardan jamiyat boshqaruvchisiga sadoqat ko'rsatishni talab qiladi.[83] Vahhobiylar an'anaviy ravishda sodiqliklarini Saud uyiva bu ularni Saudiya Arabistonida siyosiy bo'lmagan holatga keltirdi.[84] Shu bilan birga, Saudiya uyiga sadoqat ko'rsatishni rad etadigan salafiy jihodchilar tarmog'i, shu jumladan oz sonli boshqa shtammlar mavjud.[84][85] Vahhobiylik, shuningdek, unga qiziqmaslik bilan ajralib turadi ijtimoiy adolat, antikolonializm, yoki iqtisodiy tenglikasosiy islomchilar tomonidan tushuntirilgan.[86] Tarixda vahobiylik davlat tomonidan homiylik qilingan va xalqaro miqyosda Saudiya Arabistoni tomonidan targ'ib qilinadi asosan mablag 'yordamida Saudiya neftining eksporti,[87] 70-yillardagi ta'sirining (keyinchalik salafiylikning ta'siri) "portlovchi o'sishiga" olib keladi (bu hodisa ko'pincha shunday nomlanadi) Petro-Islom).[88] Bugungi kunda vahhobiylik ham, salafiylik ham dunyo miqyosida o'z ta'sirini o'tkazmoqdalar va ular ham salafiy jihodizmining ko'tarilishiga bilvosita hissa qo'shmoqdalar.[88]

Jangari islomizm / Jihodizm

Kutbizm

Kutbizm tomonidan shakllangan mafkura Sayyid Qutb, 50-60-yillarda Musulmon Birodarlar tashkilotining nufuzli namoyandasi, bu islomiy maqsadlarni ilgari surish uchun zo'ravonlik ishlatilishini oqlaydi.[89] Kutbizm ikki xil uslubiy tushunchalar bilan belgilanadi; bittasi takfirizmbu kutbizm kontekstida murtadga teng deb hisoblangan birodar musulmonlarning chetlatilishini bildiradi,[90] boshqasi esa "tajovuzkor Jihod"Islom tushunchasiga qarshi zo'ravonlikni targ'ib qiluvchi tushuncha kofir (kofirlar).[91] Ikki tushunchaga asoslanib, kutbizm o'z rejimini ag'darish uchun davlat apparati bilan kurashishni kuchaytiradi. Qutbizm va Salafiylik harakati birlashishi natijasida rivojlandi Salafiylik jihodizmi (pastga qarang).[92]

Kutbizm Qutb va uning birodar musulmon birodarlari tomonidan boshdan kechirilgan o'ta qatag'onning mahsuli hisoblanadi Nosir 1954 yilgi Musulmon birodarlar Nosirga suiqasd qilish rejasidan kelib chiqqan rejim. Qatag'on paytida minglab musulmon birodarlar qamoqqa tashlangan, ularning ko'plari, shu jumladan Qutb ham qiynoqqa solingan va hibsda bo'lgan kontslagerlar.[76] Bunday sharoitda Qutb o'zining asosiy ishida o'zining Islomiy mafkurasini rivojlantirgan edi Maalim fi-l-tariq (Milestones), unda u Nosir rejimi tarkibidagi musulmonlarni tenglashtirgan dunyoviylik va G'arb va ularni orqaga qaytish deb ta'rifladilar johiliya (Islom paydo bo'lishidan oldingi vaqt).[93] Shu nuqtai nazardan, u ruxsat berdi tafkir (bu Qutb yoshartirishdan oldin odatiy bo'lmagan amaliyot edi)[94] aytilgan musulmonlar haqida.[90] Qutb o'zining mafkurasi tugamasdan qatl etilgan bo'lsa ham,[93] uning g'oyasi ularning orasida keyingi avlodlar tomonidan tarqatilib, doimiy ravishda kengaytirildi Abdulloh Yusuf Azzam va Ayman az-Zavohiri, Qutb akasining talabasi bo'lgan Muhammad Qutb va keyinchalik ustozi bo'ldi Usama bin Ladin.[95][96] Zavohiriy "Qutb fe'l-atvorining pokligi va uning qamoqda o'tkazgan azoblari" deb hisoblangan va kutbistlar nutqida tajovuzkor Jihodni normallashtirishda katta rol o'ynagan.[97] Zavohiriy ham, Bin Laden ham 20-asrning oxirlarida sodir bo'lgan geosiyosiy inqiroz fonida butun musulmon olamida beqiyos rivojlangan Jihodchilar harakatining asosiy qismiga aylandilar.

Salafiylik jihodizmi

Salafiylik jihodizmi tomonidan kiritilgan atama Gilles Kepel 2002 yilda zo'ravonlikni faol ravishda targ'ib qiluvchi va olib boruvchi mafkurani nazarda tutgan holda terrorizm tashkil etishni ta'qib qilish uchun Islom davlati yoki yangi Xalifalik.[98][99] Bugungi kunda bu atama ko'pincha soddalashtirilgan Jihodizm yoki Jihodchilar harakati ga ko'ra mashhur foydalanishda Martin Kramer.[100] Bu Qutbizm, Salafiylik, Vahhobiylik va boshqa kichik islomiy oqimlar o'rtasidagi gibrid mafkura.[92][101] Abdulla A'zam singari olimlar o'rgatgan kutbizm siyosiy intellektual asoslarni takfirizm kabi tushunchalar bilan ta'minladi, salafiylik va vahhobiylik diniy intellektual hissa qo'shdi.[92][eslatma 1] Salafiy jihodizmi zamonaviy islomiy harakatlarning oz sonli qismini tashkil qiladi.[103]

Iroq va Shom Islom Davlati (IShID) Raqqa, Suriya, 2014 yil

Robin Rayt ta'kidlagan salafiylik jihodizmining o'ziga xos xususiyatlariga rasmiy qabul qilish jarayoni kiradi bay'at (sodiqlik qasamyodi) rahbarga vaxobiy ta'limotidan ilhomlangan.[104] Yana bir o'ziga xos xususiyati shundaki, strategik yoki moliyaviy jihatdan qulay bo'lganida, munosabatlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar misolida, unchalik mashhur bo'lmagan harakatlar bilan aloqalarni uzishga moslashuvchanligi. al-Qoida va al-Nusra jabhasi.[104] Salafiylar Jihodizmining boshqa muhim rivojlanishlari orasida "yaqin dushman" va "uzoq dushman" tushunchalari mavjud. "Yaqin dushman" musulmon jamiyatini egallab olgan despotik rejimni anglatadi va bu atama paydo bo'lgan Muhammad Abdul-Salom Farag suiqasdini oqlash maqsadida Anvar al-Sadod Salafi Jihodiy tashkiloti tomonidan Misr Islomiy Jihod (EIJ) 1981 yilda.[105] Keyinchalik G'arbni anglatuvchi "uzoq dushman" tushunchasi 1996 yilda al-Qoida tomonidan kiritilgan va rasmiy ravishda e'lon qilingan.[105][106]

Salafiy jihodizmi 80-yillarda paydo bo'lgan Sovet Afg'onistonga bostirib kirdi.[107] Mahalliy mujohidlar qazib olgan edi moliyaviy, moddiy-texnik va harbiy yordam Saudiya Arabistoni, Pokiston va AQShdan. Keyinchalik, Usama bin Ladin 1988 yilda ushbu moliyaviy, moddiy-texnika va harbiy tarmoqni kapitallashtirish va ularning faoliyatini kengaytirish uchun "al-Qoida" ni transmilliy salafiy jihodiy tashkiloti sifatida tashkil etdi.[107] Mafkura 90-yillarda musulmon dunyosi ko'plab geosiyosiy inqirozni boshdan kechirgan paytda ko'tarilgan edi.[107] xususan Jazoir fuqarolar urushi (1991-2002), Bosniya urushi (1992-1995) va Birinchi Chechen urushi (1994-1996). Ushbu to'qnashuvlar ichida siyosiy Islom ko'pincha mafkuraning faol tarqalishi evaziga al-Qoidaning moliyaviy, moddiy-texnik va harbiy yordamini talab qilgan mahalliy jangchilar uchun harakatlantiruvchi omil sifatida harakat qildi.[107] Keyin 1998 yil AQSh elchixonalarini portlatish, 11 sentyabr hujumlari (2001), AQSh boshchiligidagi Afg'onistonga bostirib kirish (2001) va Iroq (2003), salafiy jihodizmi o'z tezligini ko'rdi. Biroq, bu AQShning aksilterror operatsiyalari natijasida vayron bo'ldi va yakuniga etdi Bin Ladenning o'limi 2011 yilda.[107] Arab bahori (2011) va undan keyingi davrdan keyin Suriya fuqarolar urushi (2011 yildan hozirgi kungacha), Iroqdagi "Al-Qoida" franchayzingining qoldiqlari o'zlarining salohiyatini tikladilar va tezda rivojlanib Iroq va Shom Islom davlati, o'z ta'sirini to'qnashuv zonalariga tarqaldi MENA mintaqasi va dunyo.

Tarix

Oldingi harakatlar

Islomchiligidan oldingi ba'zi islomiy revolyutsion harakatlar va rahbarlarga quyidagilar kiradi:

  • Ahmad Sirxindi (~ 1564–1624) ichkaridagi pravoslavlikni qayta tasdiqlashning bir qismi edi Islom tasavvufi (Taawwuf) va uning izdoshlari tomonidan "Ikkinchi ming yillik ta'mirchisi" sifatida tanilgan. Sirxindi haqida u "hind islomiga bugungi kunda o'zining qattiq va konservativ muhrini bergan" deb aytilgan.[108][109][110]
  • Ibn TaymiyaXIII-XIV asrlarda suriyalik islom huquqshunosi, u ko'pincha zamonaviy islomchilar tomonidan keltirilgan. Ibn Taymiyya shariat qonunlaridan voz kechishga qarshi edi, Muhammadning tug'ilgan kunini nishonlash kabi odatlarga qarshi edi va "u payg'ambar yoki avliyolarning qabridan yordam so'raganlarni mushrikinlar (mushriklar), kimdir u bilan shug'ullanadigan odam deb hisoblar edi. shirk."[111]
  • Shoh Valiulloh Hindiston va Muhammad ibn Abdulvahhob Arabistonda o'qish paytida bir-birlari bilan uchrashgan zamondoshlar bo'lgan Makka. Muhammad ibn Abdulvahhob qabristonga sajda qilish kabi diniy xislatlarni yo'q qilish va Islom tomonidan targ'ib qilingan va amal qilgan maktubga va ruhiga qaytish tarafdori. Muhammad. U topishga davom etdi Vahhobiylik. Shoh Valiulloh islohotchi islomchilar kabi kashshof edi Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad Iqbol va Muhammad Asad uning fikriga ko'ra "doimiy ravishda yangiga ehtiyoj bor edi ijtihod Musulmonlar jamoasi rivojlanib, kengayib borgan sari va yangi avlodlar yangi muammolarga dosh berishga majbur bo'ldilar "va uning kambag'allarning ijtimoiy va iqtisodiy muammolariga qiziqishi.[112]
  • Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi Shoh Valiullohning o'g'lining shogirdi va davomchisi bo'lib, u islomning g'ayri diniy e'tiqod va odatlardan poklanishini ta'kidlagan. U zamonaviy jangari islomchilarni an ekstremistik, jihodchi harakati va majburlash asosida Islom davlatini yaratishga urinishgan Islom shariati. U jang qilganda Sixlar fundamentalist qoidalari aksariyat qismi musulmonlar bo'lgan Shimoliy-G'arbiy Hindistonda uning tarafdorlari qarshi kurashdilar Angliya mustamlakachiligi vafotidan keyin va bilan ittifoqdosh Hind muttabiri.[113]
  • Hindlar qo'zg'oloni muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchraganidan so'ng, Shoh Valiullohning ba'zi izdoshlari Hindistonning islom merosini saqlab qolish uchun tinchroq usullarga murojaat qilishdi va Dar al-Ulum seminariyasi 1867 yilda shaharchasida Deoband. Maktabdan Deobandi harakati bu eng katta bo'ldi falsafiy harakat an'anaviy Islomiy fikr yuritish subkontitendagi minglab kishilarning paydo bo'lishiga olib keldi madrasalar zamonaviy Hindiston, Pokiston va Bangladesh bo'ylab.[114]

Dastlabki tarix

19-asrning oxirida musulmonlarning aksariyati parchalanib ketgan Usmonli imperiyasi musulmon bo'lmagan Evropa mustamlakachilari tomonidan.[115] Imperiya G'arbning fuqarolik va harbiy texnologiyalariga katta miqdordagi mablag'ni sarflab, modernizatsiya qilish va tajovuz qilayotgan Evropa qudratlari bilan raqobatlashishga harakat qildi va bu jarayonda ushbu kuchlar oldida chuqur qarzga botdi.

Shu nuqtai nazardan, Jamol ad-din nashrlari al-Afg‘oniy (1837–97), Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) va Rashid Rida (1865–1935) imperiyaning siyosiy, iqtisodiy va madaniy tanazzulining islomiy muqobillarini targ'ib qildi.[116] Muhammad Abduh va Rashid Rida islomiy harakatni boshladilar,[117][118][119][120] shuningdek, islohotchi islomiy harakat.

Ularning g'oyalariga shariat qonunlari asosida chinakam islomiy jamiyatni yaratish va rad etish kiradi taqlid, avvalgi hokimiyatlarga ko'r-ko'rona taqlid qilish, ular ishonganlar, Islomning haqiqiy xabarlaridan chetga chiqish.[121] Keyingi ba'zi islomchilardan farqli o'laroq, Dastlabki salafiya ning tiklanishini qat'iy ta'kidladi Xalifalik.[122]

Muhammad Iqbol

Muhammad Iqbol faylasuf, shoir va siyosatchi bo'lgan[123] yilda Britaniya Hindistoni kim ilhomlantirgan deb tanilgan Islom millatchiligi va Pokiston harakati yilda Britaniya Hindistoni.[123][124][125] Iqbol taniqli mumtoz shoir sifatida hayratga tushadi Pokiston, Eron, Hind va boshqa xalqaro adabiyotshunoslar.[126][127] Garchi Iqbol taniqli shoir sifatida tanilgan bo'lsa-da, u juda tan olingan "zamonaviy davrning islom falsafiy mutafakkiri" dir.[123][127]

Iqbol Angliya va Germaniyada huquq va falsafani o'rganayotganda London filialining a'zosi bo'ldi Butun Hindiston musulmonlar ligasi.[127] U qaytib keldi Lahor 1908 yilda. O'z vaqtini huquq amaliyoti va falsafiy she'riyat o'rtasida taqsimlash paytida Iqbol Musulmonlar Ligasida faol bo'lib qoldi. U hindlarning ishtirokini qo'llab-quvvatlamadi Birinchi jahon urushi kabi musulmon siyosiy rahbarlari bilan yaqin aloqada bo'ldilar Muhammad Ali Johar va Muhammad Ali Jinna. U asosiy oqimning tanqidchisi edi Hindistonlik millatchi va dunyoviy Hindiston milliy kongressi. Iqbolning etti inglizcha ma'ruzasi tomonidan nashr etilgan Oksford universiteti matbuoti 1934 yilda nomli kitobda Islomda diniy fikrlashning tiklanishi.[128] Ushbu ma'ruzalarda Islomning din sifatida, shuningdek zamonaviy davrdagi siyosiy va huquqiy falsafaning o'rni haqida to'xtalib o'tilgan.[128]

Iqbol nafaqat shunday qilishidan qo'rqishini bildirdi dunyoviylik va dunyoviy millatchilik Islomning ma'naviy asoslarini zaiflashtirish va Musulmon jamiyat, ammo bu Hindistonniki Hindu- ko'pchilik aholi musulmonlarning merosi, madaniyati va siyosiy ta'sirini siqib chiqarishi mumkin edi. Misrga, Afg'onistonga sayohatida, Falastin va Suriya, u g'oyalarini ilgari surdi Islomiy siyosiy hamkorlik va birdamlik, millatchilik tafovutlarini to'kishga chaqirdi. Sir Mummad Iqbol 1930 yilda bo'lib o'tgan majlisida Musulmonlar ligasi prezidenti etib saylandi Ollohobod shuningdek, sessiya uchun Lahor 1932 yilda. Uning Allohobod manzili 1930 yil 29-dekabrda Iqbol Hindistonning shimoli-g'arbiy qismida musulmonlar yashovchi provinsiyalar uchun mustaqil davlat haqidagi tasavvurini bayon qildi. Keyinchalik ushbu manzil ilhomlantirdi Pokiston harakati.

Keyinchalik Iqbolning fikrlari va qarashlari ko'pchilikka ta'sir qildi islohotchi Islomchilar, masalan, Muhammad Asad, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududiy va Ali Shariati.

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududiy

Ning bo'yash Abul Ala Maududi

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududiy[129][130] yigirmanchi asrning boshlarida Hindistonda, so'ng Buyuk Britaniyadan mustaqil bo'lganidan keyin Pokistondagi Islom uyg'onishida muhim rol o'ynagan. Yurist sifatida o'qigan va jurnalistika kasbini tanlagan, zamonaviy mavzularda va eng muhimi Islom va Islom qonunchiligi haqida yozgan. Maududi asos solgan Jamoat-i-Islomiy party in 1941 and remained its leader until 1972. However, Maududi had much more impact through his writing than through his political organising. His extremely influential books (translated into many languages) placed Islam in a modern context, and influenced not only conservative ulama but liberal modernizer Islamists such as al-Faruqi, kimning "Islamization of Knowledge" carried forward some of Maududi's key principles.

Maududi believed that Islam was all-encompassing: "Everything in the universe is 'Muslim' for it obeys God by submission to His laws... The man who denies God is called Kofir (concealer) because he conceals by his disbelief what is inherent in his nature and embalmed in his own soul."[131]

Maududi also believed that Muslim society could not be Islamic without Sharia, and Islam required the establishment of an Islamic state. This state should be a "theo-democracy,"[132] based on the principles of: tavhid (unity of God), risala (prophethood) and xalifa (caliphate).[133][134][135]Although Maududi talked about Islamic revolution,[136] by "revolution" he meant not the violence or populist policies of the Eron inqilobi, but the gradual changing the hearts and minds of individuals from the top of society downward through an educational process or da'vat.[137][138]

Musulmon birodarlar

Roughly contemporaneous with Maududi was the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood in Ismailiyah, Egypt in 1928 by Hassan al Banna. His was arguably the first, largest and most influential modern Islamic political/religious organization. Under the motto "the Qur'an is our constitution,"[139]it sought Islamic revival through preaching and also by providing basic community services including schools, mosques, and workshops. Like Maududi, Al Banna believed in the necessity of government rule based on Shariah law implemented gradually and by persuasion, and of eliminating all imperialist influence in the Muslim world.[140]

Some elements of the Brotherhood, though perhaps against orders, did engage in violence against the government, and its founder Al-Banna was assassinated in 1949 in retaliation for the assassination of Egypt's premier Mahmud Fami Naqrashi three months earlier.[141] The Brotherhood has suffered periodic repression in Egypt and has been banned several times, in 1948 and several years later following confrontations with Egyptian president Gamal Abdul Nosir, who jailed thousands of members for several years.

Despite periodic repression, the Brotherhood has become one of the most influential movements in the Islom olami,[142] ayniqsa Arab dunyosi. For many years it wasdescribed as "semi-legal"[143] va Misrdagi yagona muxolifat guruhi bo'lib, saylov paytida nomzodlarni ilgari surishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.[144] In 2011–12 yil Misrda parlament saylovlari, "Islomiy" (Birodarlar partiyasi) deb belgilangan siyosiy partiyalar Ozodlik va adolat partiyasi, Salafiy Al-Nur partiyasi va liberal islomchi Al-Vasat partiyasi) umumiy o'rinlarning 75 foizini egalladi.[145] Muhammad Mursiy, an Islamist of Musulmon birodarlar, was the first democratically elected president of Egypt. He was deposed during the 2013 yil Misrda davlat to'ntarishi.

Sayyid Qutb

Sayyid Qutb

Maududi's political ideas influenced Sayyid Qutb a leading member of the Musulmon birodarlar movement, and one of the key philosophers of Islamism and highly influential thinkers of Islamic universalism.[146] Qutb believed things had reached such a state that the Muslim community had literally ceased to exist. It "has been extinct for a few centuries,"[147] having reverted to Godless ignorance (Jahiliya).

To eliminate jahiliyya, Qutb argued Sharia, or Islamic law, must be established. Sharia law was not only accessible to humans and essential to the existence of Islam, but also all-encompassing, precluding "evil and corrupt" non-Islamic ideologies like communism, nationalism, or secular democracy.

Qutb preached that Muslims must engage in a two-pronged attack of converting individuals through preaching Islam peacefully and also waging what he called militant jihad so as to forcibly eliminate the "power structures" of Jahiliyya—not only from the Islamic homeland but from the face of the earth.

Qutb was both a member of the brotherhood and enormously influential in the Muslim world at large. Qutb is considered by some (Fawaz A. Gerges) to be "the founding father and leading theoretician" of modern jihadists, such as Usama bin Ladin.[148][149] However, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and in Europe has not embraced his vision of undemocratic Islom davlati and armed jihad, something for which they have been denounced by radical Islamists.[150]

Ascendance on international politics

Islamic fervor was understood as a weapon that the United States could use as a weapon in its Sovuq urush qarshi Sovet Ittifoqi and its communist allies because communism professes ateizm. In a September 1957 White House meeting between AQSh prezidenti Eyzenxauer and senior U.S. foreign policy officials, it was agreed to use the communists' lack of religion against them by setting up a secret task force to deliver weapons to Middle East despots, including the Saudi Arabian rulers. "We should do everything possible to stress the 'holy war' aspect" that has currency in the Middle East, President Eisenhower stated in agreement.[151]

Six-Day War (1967)

The quick and decisive defeat of the Arab troops during the Six-Day War by Israeli troops constituted a pivotal event in the Arab Muslim world. The defeat along with economic stagnation in the defeated countries, was blamed on the secular Arab millatchiligi of the ruling regimes. A steep and steady decline in the popularity and credibility of secular, socialist and nationalist politics ensued. Baasizm, Arab sotsializmiva Arab millatchiligi suffered, and different democratic and anti-democratic Islamist movements inspired by Maududi va Sayyid Qutb gained ground.[152]

Iranian Revolution (1978–1979)

The first modern "Islamist state" (with the possible exception of Zia's Pakistan)[153] was established among the Shia Eron. In a major shock to the rest of the world, Oyatulloh Ruxolloh Xomeyni led the Iranian Revolution of 1979 in order to overthrow the oil-rich, well-armed, Westernized and pro-American secular monarchy ruled by Shah Muhammad Rizo Pahlaviy.

The views of Ali Shariati, the ideologue of the Eron inqilobi, resembled those of Muhammad Iqbol, the ideological father of the Pokiston davlati, but Khomeini's beliefs are perceived to be placed somewhere between the beliefs of Shia Islam and the beliefs of Sunni Islamic thinkers like Mawdudi and Qutb. He believed that complete imitation of the Payg'ambar Muhammad kabi va uning vorislari Ali for the restoration of Sharia law was essential to Islam, that many secular, Westernizing Muslims were actually agents of the West and therefore serving Western interests, and that acts such as the "plundering" of Muslim lands was part of a long-term conspiracy against Islam by Western governments.[154]

His views differed from those of Sunni scholars in:

  • Kabi Shia, Khomeini looked to Ali ibn Abī Tālib and Husayn ibn Ali Imam, but not Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar yoki Usmon.
  • Khomeini talked not about restoring the Xalifalik yoki Sunniy Islom demokratiyasi, but about establishing a state where the guardianship of the democratic or the dictatorial political system was performed by Shia jurists (ulama) as the successors of Shia imomlari gacha Mehdi dan qaytib keladi occultation. Uning kontseptsiyasi velayat-e-faqih ("guardianship of the [Islamic] jurist"), held that the leading Shia Muslim cleric in society—which Khomeini's mass of followers believed and chose to be himself—should serve as the supervisor of the state in order to protect or "guard" Islam and Shariat law from "innovation" and "anti-Islamic laws" passed by dictators or democratic parliaments.[154]

The revolution was influenced by Marksizm through Islamist thought and also by writings that sought either to counter Marxism (Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr's work) or to integrate socialism and Islamism (Ali Shariatiish). A strong wing of the revolutionary leadership was made up of leftists or "radical populists", such as Ali Akbar Mohtashami-Pur.[155]

While initial enthusiasm for the Iranian revolution in the Muslim world was intense, it has waned as critics hold and campaign that "purges, executions, and atrocities tarnished its image".[156]

The Islamic Republic has also maintained its hold on power in Iran in spite of US economic sanctions, and has created or assisted like-minded Shia terrorist groups in Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan (SCIRI)[157][158] and Lebanon (Hizbulloh)[159] (two Muslim countries that also have large Shiite populations).During the 2006 yil Isroil-Livan mojarosi, the Iranian government enjoyed something of a resurgence in popularity amongst the predominantly Sunni "Arab street,"[160] due to its support for Hizbulloh and to President Mahmud Ahmadinajod's vehement opposition to the United States and his call that Isroil shall vanish.[161]

Grand Mosque seizure (1979)

The strength of the Islamist movement was manifest in an event which might have seemed sure to turn Muslim public opinion against fundamentalizm, but did just the opposite. 1979 yilda Katta masjid yilda Makka Saudiya Arabistoni was seized by an armed fundamentalist group and held for over a week. Scores were killed, including many pilgrim bystanders[162] in a gross violation of one of the most holy sites in Islam (and one where arms and violence are strictly forbidden).[163][164]

Instead of prompting a backlash against the movement from which the attackers originated, however, Saudi Arabia, already very conservative, responded by shoring up its fundamentalist credentials with even more Islamic restrictions. Crackdowns followed on everything from shopkeepers who did not close for prayer and newspapers that published pictures of women, to the selling of dolls, teddy bears (images of animate objects are considered harom), and dog food (dogs are considered unclean).[165]

In other Muslim countries, blame for and wrath against the seizure was directed not against fundamentalists, but against Islamic fundamentalism's foremost geopolitical enemy—the United States. Oyatulloh Xomeyni sparked attacks on American embassies when he announced:

It is not beyond guessing that this is the work of criminal Amerika imperializmi and international Zionism

despite the fact that the object of the fundamentalists' revolt was the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, America's major ally in the region. Anti-American demonstrations followed in the Filippinlar, kurka, Bangladesh, Hindiston, BAA, Pokistonva Quvayt. AQSh elchixonasi Liviya was burned by protesters chanting pro-Khomeini slogans and the embassy in Islomobod, Pakistan was burned to the ground.[166]

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979–1989)

1979 yilda Soviet Union deployed its 40th Army into Afghanistan, attempting to suppress an Islamic rebellion against an allied Marxist regime in the Afg'onistonda fuqarolar urushi. The conflict, pitting indigenous impoverished Muslims (mujohidlar) against an anti-religious superpower, galvanized thousands of Muslims around the world to send aid and sometimes to go themselves to fight for their faith. Leading this pan-Islamic effort was Palestinian sheikh Abdulloh Yusuf Azzam. While the military effectiveness of these "Afg'onistonlik arablar" was marginal, an estimated 16,000[167] to 35,000 Muslim volunteers[168] came from around the world to fight in Afghanistan.[168][169]

When the Soviet Union abandoned the Marxist Najibullah regime and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 (the regime finally fell in 1992), the victory was seen by many Muslims as the triumph of Islamic faith over superior military power and technology that could be duplicated elsewhere.

The jihadists gained legitimacy and prestige from their triumph both within the militant community and among ordinary Muslims, as well as the confidence to carry their jihad to other countries where they believed Muslims required assistance.|[170]

The "veterans of the guerrilla campaign" returning home to Jazoir, Misr, and other countries "with their experience, ideology, and weapons," were often eager to continue armed jihad.

The collapse of the Soviet Union itself, in 1991, was seen by many Islamists, including Bin Laden, as the defeat of a superpower at the hands of Islam. Concerning the $6 billion in aid given by the US and Pakistan's military training and intelligence support to the mujahideen,[171] bin Laden wrote: "[T]he US has no mentionable role" in "the collapse of the Soviet Union ... rather the credit goes to God and the mujahidin" of Afghanistan.[172]

Fors ko'rfazi urushi (1990-1991)

Another factor in the early 1990s that worked to radicalize the Islamist movement was the Ko'rfaz urushi, which brought several hundred thousand US and allied non-Muslim military personnel to Saudi Arabian soil to put an end to Saddam Xuseyn's occupation of Kuwait. Prior to 1990 Saudi Arabia played an important role in restraining the many Islamist groups that received its aid. But when Saddam, secularist and Baatist dictator of neighboring Iroq, attacked Kuwait (his enemy in the war), western troops came to protect the Saudi monarchy. Islamists accused the Saudi regime of being a puppet of the west.

These attacks resonated with conservative Muslims and the problem did not go away with Saddam's defeat either, since American troops remained stationed in the kingdom, and a de facto cooperation with the Palestinian-Israeli peace process developed. Saudi Arabia attempted to compensate for its loss of prestige among these groups by repressing those domestic Islamists who attacked it (bin Laden being a prime example), and increasing aid to Islamic groups (Islamist madrassas around the world and even aiding some violent Islamist groups) that did not, but its pre-war influence on behalf of moderation was greatly reduced.[173] One result of this was a campaign of attacks on government officials and tourists in Misr, a bloody civil war in Jazoir va Usama bin Ladin's terror attacks climaxing in the 9/11 attack.[174]

Rise of Islamism by country

Afghanistan (Taliban)

Bayroq Toliblar
Military situation, as of 2017
  Tolibon nazorati ostida, Al-Qoidava Ittifoqchilar

In Afghanistan, the mujahideen's victory against the Sovet Ittifoqi in the 1980s did not lead to justice and prosperity, due to a vicious and destructive Fuqarolar urushi between political and tribal warlords, making Afghanistan one of the poorest countries on earth. 1992 yilda Afg'oniston Demokratik Respublikasi ruled by communist forces collapsed, and democratic Islamist elements of mujahdeen founded the Afg'oniston Islomiy Davlati. In 1996, a more conservative and anti-democratic Islamist movement known as the Toliblar rose to power, defeated most of the warlords and took over roughly 80% of Afghanistan.

The Taliban were spawned by the thousands of madrasalar The Deobandi movement established for impoverished Afg'on qochqinlari and supported by governmental and religious groups in neighboring Pakistan.[175] The Taliban differed from other Islamist movements to the point where they might be more properly described as Islomiy fundamentalist or neofundamentalist, interested in spreading "an idealized and systematized version of conservative tribal village customs" under the label of Sharia to an entire country.[176] Their ideology was also described as being influenced by Vahhobiylik, va ekstremistik jihodizm of their guest Usama bin Ladin.[177][178]

The Taliban considered "politics" to be against Sharia and thus did not hold elections. They were led by Mullah Muhammad Omar who was given the title "Amir al-Mu'minin" or Commander of the Faithful, and a pledge of loyalty by several hundred Taliban-selected Pashtun clergy in April 1996. Taliban were overwhelmingly Pashtun and were accused of not sharing power with the approximately 60% of Afghans who belonged to other ethnic groups. (qarang: Taliban#Ideology)[179]

The Taliban's hosting of Usama bin Ladin led to an American-organized attack which drove them from power following the 11 sentyabr hujumlari.[180]Taliban are still very much alive and fighting a vigorous isyon with suicide bombings and armed attacks being launched against NATO and Afghan government targets.

Jazoir

The FIS timsol

An Islamist movement influenced by Salafism and the jihad in Afghanistan, as well as the Musulmon birodarlar, was the FIS or Front Islamique de Salut (the Islom najot fronti) Jazoirda. Founded as a broad Islamist coalition in 1989 it was led by Abbassi Madani, and a charismatic Islamist young preacher, Ali Belxadj. Taking advantage of economic failure and unpopular social liberalization and secularization by the ruling leftist-nationalist FLN government, it used its preaching to advocate the establishment of a legal system following Sharia law, economic liberalization and development program, education in Arabic rather than French, and gender segregation, with women staying home to alleviate the high rate of unemployment among young Algerian men. The FIS won sweeping victories in local elections and it was going to win national elections in 1991 when voting was canceled by a military coup d'état.

As Islamists took up arms to overthrow the government, the FIS's leaders were arrested and it became overshadowed by Islamist guerrilla groups, particularly the Islom qutqarish armiyasi, MIA and Qurollangan Islomiy guruh (or GIA). A bloody and devastating Fuqarolar urushi ensued in which between 150,000 and 200,000 people were killed over the next decade.

The civil war was not a victory for Islamists. By 2002 the main guerrilla groups had either been destroyed or had surrendered. The popularity of Islamist parties has declined to the point that "the Islamist candidate, Abdallah Jaballah, came a distant third with 5% of the vote" in the 2004 presidential election.[181]

Bangladesh

Jamoat-i-Islomiy Bangladesh is the largest Islamist party in the country and supports the implementation of Shariat law and promotes the country's main right-wing politics. Since 2000, the main political opposition Bangladesh milliy partiyasi (BNP) has been allied with it and another Islamic party, Islami Oikya Jote. Some of their leaders and supporters, including former ministers and MPs, have been hanged for alleged war crimes during Bangladesh's mustaqillik uchun kurash and speaking against the ruling Bangladesh Avami ligasi.[182]

Belgiya

In the 2012, the party named Islom had four candidates and they were elected in Molenbek va "Anderlext".[183] In 2018, they ran candidates in 28 municipalities. Its policies include schools must offer halal food and women must be able to wear a headscarf anywhere.[184] Another of the Islam Party's goals is to separate men and women on public transportation. The party's president argues this policy will help protect women from sexual harassment.[185]

Daniya

1990-yillardan boshlab islomiy harakatlar asta-sekin o'sib bordi. Birinchi islomiy guruhlar va tarmoqlar asosan ta'sir ko'rsatgan ular ko'chib kelgan mamlakatlar. Ishtirok etganlar Yaqin Sharq, Janubiy Osiyo va Shimoliy Afrikadagi jangari islomchilar bilan yaqin aloqada bo'lishgan. Ularning operatsiyalari jangari guruhlarni moliyaviy birinchi darajadagi vazifasi sifatida qo'llab-quvvatlash edi. 1990-yillardan boshlab islomiy harakatlarning vakillari islomiy jangarilar bilan tayyorgarlik ko'rish yoki ular bilan kurashishda qatnashish uchun bir nechta to'qnashuvlarga qo'shilishdi.[186]

2000-yillarda islomiy harakatlar o'sdi va 2014-yilga kelib islomiy harakatlar orasida jangarilar ham bor edi Kopengagen, Orxus va Odense. Jinoiy to'dalardan bir necha kishi jangari islomizmga hamdard bo'lgan islomiy harakatlarga qo'shilishadi. Jangari islomiy harakat 2014 yilda yuzlab kishilarni qamrab olishi taxmin qilingan.[186]

Daniya Milliy Ijtimoiy tadqiqotlar markazi Bolalar, integratsiya va ijtimoiy ishlar vazirligi tomonidan Daniyada faoliyat yuritayotgan 15 ekstremistik guruhni hujjatlashtirgan hisobotni e'lon qildi. Ushbu tashkilotlarning aksariyati musulmon bo'lmagan o'ta o'ng yoki o'ta chap guruhlar edi, ammo beshtasi sunniy islomiy guruhlar edi. Ushbu sunniy islomiy guruhlar tarkibiga kiradi Hizb ut-Tahrir Daniya, Dawah-bere (Dawah Carriers), Kaldet til Islam (Islomga da'vat), Dawah-centret (Dovat markazi) va Muslimsk Ungdomscenter (The Muslim Youth Centre). Ushbu sunniy islomiy guruhlarning barchasi Buyuk Kopengagendagilar bundan mustasno Muslimsk Ungdomscenter, Orxusda ishlaydi. Umuman, 195 dan 415 gacha musulmonlar ushbu tashkilotlardan biriga mansub bo'lib, ularning aksariyati yosh yigitlardir.[187]

Egypt (Jihadism)

While Qutb's ideas became increasingly radical during his imprisonment prior to his execution in 1966, the leadership of the Brotherhood, led by Hasan al-Hudaybi, remained moderate and interested in political negotiation and activism. Fringe or splinter movements inspired by the final writings of Qutb in the mid-1960s (particularly the manifesto Milestones, a.k.a. Maalim fi-l-tariq) did, however, develop and they pursued a more radical direction.[188] By the 1970s, the Brotherhood had renounced violence as a means of achieving its goals.

The path of violence and military struggle was then taken up by the Misr Islomiy Jihod organization responsible for the assassination of Anvar Sadat in 1981. Unlike earlier anti-colonial movements the ekstremistik group directed its attacks against what it believed were "apostate" leaders of Muslim states, leaders who held secular leanings or who had introduced or promoted Western/foreign ideas and practices into Islamic societies. Its views were outlined in a pamphlet written by Muhammad Abd al-Salaam Farag, in which he states:

...there is no doubt that the first battlefield for jihad is the extermination of these infidel leaders and to replace them by a complete Islamic Order...

Another of the Egyptian groups which employed violence in their struggle for Islamic order was al-Gama'a al-Islomiyya (Islamic Group). Victims of their campaign against the Egyptian state in the 1990s included the head of the counter-terrorism police (Major General Raouf Khayrat), a parliamentary speaker (50x80mm Ceramic Transparent Glass Plate Fireplace Stove Level Mi), o'nlab evropalik sayyohlar va Misr atrofidagi odamlar va 100 dan ortiq Misr politsiyasi.[189] Ultimately the campaign to overthrow the government was unsuccessful, and the major jihadi group, Jamaa Islamiya (or al-Gama'a al-Islomiyya), renounced violence in 2003.[190] Other lesser known groups include the Islamic Liberation Party, Jahannamdan najot va Takfir val-hijra, and these groups have variously been involved in activities such as attempted assassinations of political figures, arson of video shops and attempted takeovers of government buildings.[191]

Frantsiya

The Democratic Union of Muslims, a party founded in 2012, planned to take part in 2019 municipal elections. They presented candidate lists for 50 different cities.[192] The Democratic Union of Muslims also fielded candidates for European Parliament elections. The rise of the party can be attributed to French Muslim dissatisfaction with mainstream political parties.[193] Ultimately, it represents an alternative to the Islamophobia in France.[194]

Gaza (Hamas)

The HAMAS bayroq

HAMAS is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that governs the Dr. Browns Natural Flow Deluxe Bottle Sterilizer where it has moved to establish sharia law in matters such as separation of the genders, using the lash for punishment, and Islamic dress code.[195]Hamas also has a military resistance wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam brigadalari.[196]

For some decades prior to the First Palestine Intifada 1987 yilda,[197] the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine took a "quiescent" stance towards Israel,[198] focusing on preaching, education and social services, and benefiting from Israel's "indulgence" to build up a network of mosques and charitable organizations.[199] As the First Intifada gathered momentum and Palestinian shopkeepers closed their shops in support of the uprising, the Brotherhood announced the formation of HAMAS ("zeal"), devoted to Jihod Isroilga qarshi. Rather than being more moderate than the PLO, the 1988 Hamas charter took a more uncompromising stand, calling for the destruction of Israel and the establishment of an Islamic state in Palestine.[200] It was soon competing with and then overtaking the PLO for control of the intifada. The Brotherhood's base of devout middle class found common cause with the impoverished youth of the intifada in their cultural conservatism and antipathy for activities of the secular middle class such as drinking alcohol and going about without hijob.[201]

Hamas has continued to be a major player in Palestine. From 2000 to 2007 it killed 542 people in 140 suicide bombing or "martyrdom operations".[200] In the January 2006 legislative election—its first foray into the political process—it won the majority of the seats,[200] and in 2007 it drove the PLO out of Gaza. Hamas has been praised by Muslims for driving Israel out of the Kensington ComboSaver Combination Portable Notebook Lock K64515U,[200] but criticized for failure to achieve its demands in the 2008–09 va 2014 Gaza Wars despite heavy destruction and significant loss of life.[202]

Pokiston

Pokiston davlati tarixining boshida (1949 yil 12 mart), parlament qarori ( Maqsadlarni hal qilish) was adopted in accordance with the ko'rish of founding fathers of Pokiston (Muhammad Iqbol, Muhammad Ali Jinna, Liaquat Ali Xon).[203] e'lon qilish:

Suverenitet tegishli Alloh yolg'iz lekin U muqaddas omonat sifatida belgilangan chegaralarda ishlash uchun uni xalqi orqali Pokiston davlatiga topshirgan.

  • Davlat o'z vakolatlari va vakolatlarini xalqning saylangan vakillari orqali amalga oshiradi.
  • Islom bayon etgan demokratiya, erkinlik, tenglik, bag'rikenglik va ijtimoiy adolat tamoyillariga to'liq rioya qilinishi kerak.
  • Musulmonlarga Qur'on va Sunnatda belgilangan Islom ta'limotiga binoan o'z hayotlarini shaxsiy va jamoaviy sohalarda tartibga solish imkoniyati beriladi.
  • Diniy ozchiliklar o'z dinlarini erkin e'tirof etishlari va ularga amal qilishlari va o'z madaniyatlarini rivojlantirishlari uchun sharoit yaratiladi.

This resolution later became a key source of inspiration for writers of the Pokiston konstitutsiyasi, and is included in the constitution as preamble.

In July 1977, General Ziyo ul-Haq overthrew Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's regime in Pakistan. Ali Bhutto, a leftist in democratic competition with Islamists, had announced banning alcohol and nightclubs within six months, shortly before he was overthrown.[204] Zia-ul-Haq was much more committed to Islamism, and "Islomlashtirish" or implementation of Islamic law, became a cornerstone of his eleven-year military dictatorship and Islamism became his "official state ideology". Zia ul Haq was an admirer of Mavdudi and Mawdudi's party Jamoat-i-Islomiy became the "regime's ideological and political arm".[205] In Pakistan this Islamization from above was "probably" more complete "than under any other regime except those in Iran and Sudan," but Zia-ul-Haq was also criticized by many Islamists for imposing "symbols" rather than substance, and using Islamization to legitimize his means of seizing power.[206] Unlike neighboring Iran, Zia-ul-Haq's policies were intended to "avoid revolutionary excess", and not to strain relations with his American and Persian Gulf state allies.[207] Zia-ul-Haq was killed in 1988 but Islamization remains an important element in Pakistani society.

Sudan

For many years, Sudan had an Islamist regime under the leadership of Hasan at-Turobiy. Uning Milliy Islomiy front first gained influence when strongman General Gaafar al-Nimeiry invited members to serve in his government in 1979. Turabi built a powerful economic base with money from foreign Islamist banking systems, especially those linked with Saudi Arabia. He also recruited and built a cadre of influential loyalists by placing sympathetic students in the university and military academy while serving as minister of education.[58]

After al-Nimeiry was overthrown in 1985 the party did poorly in national elections, but in 1989 it was able to overthrow the elected post-al-Nimeiry government with the help of the military. Turabi was noted for proclaiming his support for the democratic process and a liberal government before coming to power, but strict application of sharia law, torture and mass imprisonment of the opposition,[57] and an intensification of the long-running war in southern Sudan,[208] once in power. The NIF regime also harbored Usama bin Ladin for a time (before 9/11), and worked to unify Islamist opposition to the American attack on Iraq in the 1991 Ko'rfaz urushi.

After Sudanese intelligence services were implicated in an suiqasd qilishga urinish on the President of Egypt, UN economic sanctions were imposed on Sudan, a poor country, and Turabi fell from favor.[209] He was imprisoned for a time in 2004–05. Some of the NIF policies, such as the war with the non-Muslim south, have been reversed, though the National Islamic Front still holds considerable power in the government of Umar al-Bashir va Milliy Kongress partiyasi, another Islamist party in country.

Shveytsariya

Switzerland is not normally seen as a center of Islamism, especially when compared to countries such as Belgium or France. However, from 2012 to 2018, the majority of the country's jihadist and would-be jihadist population were radicalized in Switzerland.[210]

kurka

Necmettin Erbakan, was the first Islamist Prime Minister of Turkey elected in 1996, but was removed from power by a "postmodern coup d'état" 1997 yilda.

kurka had a number of Islamist parties, often changing names as they were banned by the constitutional court for anti-secular activities. Necmettin Erbakan (1926–2011) was the leader of several of the parties, the Milliy tartib partiyasi (Milliy Nizom Partisi, 1970-1971), Milliy najot partiyasi (Milliy Selamet Partisi, 1972-1981) va Farovonlik partiyasi (Refah Partisi, 1983-1998); u ham a'zosi bo'ldi Saodat partiyasi (Saadet Partisi, 2003–2011). Turkiyaning amaldagi prezidenti Rajab Toyyib Erdo'g'an azaldan siyosiy islom tarafdori hisoblanadi.[211]

The Adolat va taraqqiyot partiyasi 2002 yildan beri Turkiya siyosatida hukmronlik qilgan (AKP) ba'zan islomchi deb ta'riflanadi, ammo bunday tasnifni rad etadi.[212]

Zamonaviy davr

Mamlakatlar bo'yicha

Hizb ut-Tahrir

Hizb ut-Tahrir 1953 yilda islomiy tomonidan tashkil etilgan nufuzli xalqaro islomiy harakatdir Qadi (sudya) Taqiuddin al-Nabhani. XT boshqa islomiy harakatlarning ko'pchiligidan ajralib turadi, chunki partiya shariatni mahalliy darajada yoki ijtimoiy xizmatlarni ko'rsatishga emas, balki musulmon dunyosini yangi islom tushunchasi ostida birlashtirishga qaratilgan. xalifalik Shimoliy Afrika va Yaqin Sharqdan Markaziy va Janubiy Osiyoning katta qismigacha cho'zilgan.

Shu maqsadda u taklif qilgan xalifalik davlati uchun 186 moddadan iborat konstitutsiyani ishlab chiqdi va nashr etdi, masalan, shar'iy qonunlar, musulmonlar tomonidan saylangan xalifa boshchiligidagi "unitar hukmronlik tizimi", iqtisodiyotga asoslangan iqtisodiyot. oltin standart, kommunal xizmatlar, jamoat transporti va energiya manbalariga jamoat egalik qilish, o'lim murtadlar arab tili esa "davlatning yagona tili" sifatida.[245][246]

Xalifalikka e'tiborini qaratgan holda, partiya boshqa ba'zi islomchilarga qaraganda musulmonlar tarixiga boshqacha nuqtai nazar bilan qaraydi Muhammad Qutb. XT Islomning muhim burilish nuqtasini o'lim bilan emas, deb biladi Ali, yoki qolgan to'rttadan biri to'g'ri boshqariladigan xalifalar 7-asrda, lekin bilan bekor qilish ning Usmonli xalifaligi 1924 yilda. Bu haqiqiy islomiy tuzumni tugatdi, deb ishonishadi, buning uchun u turk kofirlari tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan "kofir (kofir) mustamlakachi kuchlarni" ayblaydi. Mustafo Kamol Otaturk.[247]

HT qurollangan bilan shug'ullanmaydi jihod yoki demokratik tizim uchun ishlaydi, lekin musulmonlarning jamoatchilik fikrini o'zgartirish uchun "mafkuraviy kurash" orqali hokimiyatni qo'lga kiritishga harakat qiladi, xususan "hukumat o'zgarishini" "osonlashtiradigan", ya'ni "qonsiz" ishga tushiradigan elitalar orqali. to'ntarish. 1968 va 1969 yillarda Iordaniyada va 1974 yilda Misrda bunday to'ntarishlarga urinish va muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan va hozirda ikkala mamlakatda ham taqiqlangan.[248]

Partiya ba'zida "leninchi" deb ta'riflanadi va "uning markaziy rahbariyati tomonidan qattiq nazorat qilinadi".[249] uning millionga yaqin a'zosi bilan "kamida ikki yil o'qituvchilar rahbarligi ostida partiya adabiyotini o'rganish uchun sarflashlari kerak (Murshid)"partiya qasamyodini" berishdan oldin.[249] XT sobiq sovet respublikalarida ayniqsa faol Markaziy Osiyo va Evropa.

In Buyuk Britaniya uning mitinglari minglab musulmonlarni jalb qildi,[250] va partiyani ikki kuzatuvchi (Robert S. Leyken va Stiven Bruk) musulmon birodarlarni a'zolikda ham, radikalizmda ham ortda qoldirgan deb ta'riflashgan.[251]

Arabistondan keyingi bahor (2011 yildan hozirgacha)

Bir kuzatuvchi (Quinn Mecham) 2010-11 yilgi arab bahoridan kelib chiqqan islomizmning to'rtta tendentsiyasini ta'kidlaydi:

  • The repressiya Musulmon birodarlar. Misr harbiylari va sudlari majburan olib tashlanganidan keyin birinchi navbatda Mursi 2013 yilda lavozimidan ketgan; shuningdek, Saudiya Arabistoni va Fors ko'rfazining bir qator mamlakatlari (Qatar emas).[252][253]
  • Islomchilarning paydo bo'lishi "davlat qurilishi"bu erda" davlat muvaffaqiyatsizligi "sodir bo'lgan - eng ko'zga ko'ringan joyi - Suriya, Iroq, Liviya va Yamanda. Islomchilar raqobatdosh g'ayriislomiylarga qaraganda, davlatning etishmovchiligini to'ldirishga harakat qilib, tashqi mablag ', qurol-yarog' va jangchilarni ta'minlash orqali osonroq topdilar." ularning aksariyati chet eldan kelgan va panislomiy identifikatsiya atrofida to'plangan ". Bu islomiy hududlarda boshqaruv me'yorlari militsiyaga asoslangan bo'lib, aholi qo'rquv, sadoqat, boshqa sabablar yoki ba'zi birlashmalar tufayli o'z hokimiyatiga bo'ysunadi. .[252] Ushbu yangi "modellar" ning "eng kengaytiruvchisi" bu Islomiy davlat.[252]
  • Hech bo'lmaganda qisman mazhabparastlikni oshirish Proksi urushlar. Jangchilar asosan Saudiya Arabistoni va Fors ko'rfazi davlatlari va Eron uchun ishonchli shaxslardir. Islomchilar Livanning mazhablararo yo'nalishi bo'yicha islomchilarga qarshi kurashmoqda (sunniy jangarilar nishonga olishmoqda) Hizbulloh pozitsiyalari), Yaman (asosiy sunniy islomchilar o'rtasida Isloh va shialar Zaydi Xuti harakati), Iroqda ("Islomiy davlat" va Iroq shialarining jangarilari)[252]
  • Jazoir va Iordaniya kabi mamlakatlarda islomchilar o'z hukumatlariga qarshi katta qiyinchilik tug'dirmaslikni tanlagan mamlakatlarda ehtiyotkorlik va siyosiy bilimlarni oshirish. Yamanda Islah "o'z mafkurasini jangarilik ayblovlaridan qochadigan tarzda shakllantirishga intildi".[252]

Boshqa bir kuzatuvchi (Tarek Usmon) buni tashvish bilan qayd etmoqda

  • Arab bahori davrida hokimiyatni qo'lga kirita olmaganligi asosiy islomiy guruhlarda xatolar to'g'risida "jon izlash" ga emas, aksincha "ziddiyat va olovli g'azab" va qasos olishga tashnalikka olib keldi. Siyosiy islom partizanlari (garchi bunga ba'zi taniqli rahbarlar kirmasa ham Gannuchi yetib keldi lekin, ayniqsa, Misrda bu haqiqatdir) o'zlarini adolatsizlik qurbonlari deb bilishadi, ularning jinoyatchilari nafaqat "alohida fitnachilar, balki butun ijtimoiy guruhlar".[254]

Iroq va Shom Islom davlati

IShIDhududi, kul rangda, 2015 yil may oyida eng katta hududga ega bo'lgan paytda

"Islomiy davlat", ilgari "Iroq va Shom Islom Davlati" deb nomlangan va undan oldin "Iroq Islomiy Davlati" deb nomlangan, (arabcha qisqartma nomi bilan ham yuritilgan) Daish), a Vahhobiy/Salafiy jihodchi ekstremistik boshchiligidagi va asosan tarkibiga kirgan jangari guruh Sunniy Arablar Suriya va Iroq.[255] 2014 yilda guruh o'zini a xalifalik, diniy, siyosiy va harbiy hokimiyat bilan butun dunyodagi barcha musulmonlar ustidan.[256]2015 yil mart oyidan boshlab, o'n million kishi egallagan hudud ustidan nazorat o'rnatgan[257] Suriya va Iroqda va Liviya, Nigeriya va Afg'onistonning kichik hududlari ustidan nominal nazoratga ega.[258][259] (O'zini ta'riflagan davlat bo'lsa-da, xalqaro miqyosda tan olinmaydi.[260]) IShID shuningdek dunyoning boshqa qismlarida, shu jumladan, faoliyat yuritadi yoki filiallariga ega Shimoliy Afrika va Janubiy Osiyo[261][262]

Sifatida paydo bo'lgan Jamoat at-Tavhid val-Jihod 1999 yilda IShIDga sodiqlikni va'da qildi al-Qoida 2004 yilda ishtirok etgan Iroq qo'zg'oloni bu quyidagi Iroqqa bostirib kirish 2003 yilda G'arbiy koalitsiya kuchlari tomonidan kurashga qo'shildi Suriya fuqarolar urushi 2011 yildan boshlangan va 2014 yil boshida Al-Qoidaning tarkibidan chiqarib yuborilgan (u konsultatsiya o'tkazmagani va "taniqli murosasizlikdan" shikoyat qilgan)[263][264]). IShID Iroq hukumat kuchlarini Iroqning g'arbiy qismidagi muhim shaharlaridan quvib chiqargandan keyin mashhurlikka erishdi tajovuzkor o'sha yilning iyun oyida.[265] Guruh ijtimoiy tarmoqlarda mohir, Internetdagi videofilmlarni joylashtirmoqda askarlarning, tinch aholining, jurnalistlarning va yordam xodimlarining boshlarini kesib tashlash, va uning uchun ma'lum madaniy meros ob'ektlarini yo'q qilish.[266]The Birlashgan Millatlar (BMT) IShIDni inson huquqlarining buzilishi va uchun javobgar qildi harbiy jinoyatlarva Xalqaro Amnistiya xabar berdi etnik tozalash guruh tomonidan "tarixiy miqyosda". Guruh bo'ldi terroristik tashkilotni tayinladi BMT tomonidan Yevropa Ittifoqi (Evropa Ittifoqi) va a'zo davlatlar, AQSh, Hindiston, Indoneziya, Turkiya, Saudiya Arabistoni, Suriya va boshqa mamlakatlar.

Fon

Xayriya ishlari

Kabi islomiy harakatlar Musulmon birodarlar, "boshpana berish, ta'lim yordami, bepul yoki arzon narxlardagi tibbiy klinikalar, shahar tashqarisidagi talabalarga uy-joy yordami, talabalar maslahat guruhlari, qimmatbaho mahr talablaridan qochish uchun arzon ommaviy nikoh marosimlarini o'tkazish, yuridik yordam, sport inshootlari bilan mashhur. va ayollar guruhlari. " Bularning barchasi ijtimoiy adolatga sodiqligi ritorika bilan cheklangan vakolatsiz, samarasiz yoki beparvo hukumatlar bilan juda yaxshi taqqoslanadi.[267]

Mavjud vaziyatdan norozilik

The Arab dunyosi- musulmon olamining asl yuragi - azob chekdi iqtisodiy turg'unlik. Masalan, 1990-yillarning o'rtalarida, besh million aholisi bo'lgan Finlyandiyaning eksporti neft daromadlarini hisobga olmaganda, butun arab dunyosining 260 million eksportidan oshib ketganligi taxmin qilinmoqda.[268] Ushbu iqtisodiy turg'unlik 1924 yilda Usmonli xalifaligining barham topishi bilan boshlangan, savdo tarmoqlari buzilgan va yangi milliy davlatlarning paydo bo'lishi bilan jamiyatlar parchalanib ketgan; undan oldin Yaqin Sharq turli-tuman va o'sib borayotgan iqtisodiyotga ega bo'lib, umumiy farovonlikka ega edi.[269]

Qarshi norozilik Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Jakartaning nasroniy gubernatori, 2017 yil 31 mart

Aholining kuchli o'sishi iqtisodiy turg'unlik bilan birgalikda yaratildi shahar aglomeratsiyalari Qohirada, Istanbul, Tehron, Karachi, Dakkava Jakarta har birida 12 milliondan ziyod fuqarolar bor, ularning millionlari yosh va ishsiz yoki ishsiz.[270] Dan ajratilgan bunday demografik g'arbiylashtirilgan shahar elitasining yo'llari, ammo ular kelib chiqqan qishloqlarning qulayliklari va passiv urf-odatlaridan xalos bo'lganligi, yaxshi dunyo va'da qilgan islomiy tuzumga ma'qul kelishi aniq.[271]- "guruhning o'ziga xosligi, birdamligi va chetlashtirilishi uchun hissiy jihatdan tanish bo'lgan asos; qonuniylik va hokimiyat uchun maqbul asos; bugungi kunni tanqid qilish uchun ham, kelajak uchun dastur uchun ham darhol tushunarli bo'lgan printsiplarni yaratish".[272]

Shaxsiy siyosat

Islomiylikni uning bir qismi deb ham ta'riflash mumkin Valve Cover with Gaskets Bolts for Chevrolet Chevy Cruze Sonic V, xususan, 1970-yillarda Uchinchi dunyoda paydo bo'lgan diniy yo'naltirilgan millatchilik: "qayta tiklangan hinduizm yilda Hindiston, Diniy sionizm yilda Isroil, Shri-Lankadagi jangari buddizm, qayta tiklandi Sikh millatchiligi ichida Panjob, 'Ozodlik ilohiyoti"ning Katoliklik yilda lotin Amerikasi, va musulmon dunyosidagi islomizm. "[273]

Islomiy tiklanish

Zamonaviy ravishda islomga sadoqat tiklanishi va islomiy narsalarga qiziqish bir necha hodisalarda kuzatilishi mumkin.

Birinchi Jahon urushi oxiriga kelib aksariyat musulmon davlatlarida xristianlarga moyil G'arb davlatlari hukmronlik qilgan. Ta'kidlanishicha, yo Islomning da'volari yolg'ondir, xristian yoki nasroniylikdan keyingi G'arb nihoyat ustun bo'lgan boshqa bir tizimni o'ylab topgan yoki Islom o'ziga sodiq bo'lmay muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchragan. Shunday qilib, musulmonlar tomonidan imon va sadoqatning ikki barobar ko'payishi ushbu oqimni qaytarish uchun chaqirildi.[274]

Islom ruhining etishmasligi va g'alabaning yo'qligi o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni 1967 yilda "Quruqlik, dengiz va havo" shiori ostida jang qilayotgan arab millatchilari boshchiligidagi qo'shinlarning halokatli mag'lubiyati ta'kidladi. Olti kunlik urush, ning (deyarli sezilgan) g'alabasi bilan taqqoslaganda Yom Kippur urushi olti yildan keyin. O'sha urushda harbiylarning shiori "Xudo buyukdir" edi.[275]

Yom Kippur urushi bilan bir qatorda Arab nefti embargosi (musulmon) Fors ko'rfazida neft ishlab chiqaruvchi davlatlarning neftni qazib olishni qisqartirish va narxini to'rt baravar oshirish to'g'risidagi keskin qarori dunyoda va ayniqsa musulmon dunyosida neft, arablar va islom atamalarini kuch-qudrat bilan sinonimga aylantirdi. tasavvur.[276] Ko'plab musulmonlar Saudiya shahzodasi Saud al Faysal Fors ko'rfazidagi ulkan neft konlaridan olingan yuzlab milliard dollarlik boyliklarni Xudoning islom dindorlariga sovg'asidan boshqa narsa emasligiga ishonganlar.[277]

Sifatida Islomiy tiklanish Misr kabi ilgari islomchilarni qatag'on qilgan (va hanuzgacha repressiyalarni davom ettirayotgan) hukumatlar kuchga kirdi. Ular spirtli ichimliklarni taqiqlashdi va efirni diniy dasturlar bilan to'ldirdilar,[75] harakatni yanada ko'proq ta'sir qilish.

Davlat homiyligi

Saudiya Arabistoni

1970-yillarning o'rtalaridan boshlab Islomning qayta tiklanishi Saudiya Arabistoni neft eksportidan tushadigan ko'p miqdordagi mablag 'bilan moliyalashtirildi.[278] O'n milliard dollar "petroislom"Yaqinda ko'tarilgan neft narxidan olingan katta mablag '" butun dinning xarajatlarining 90% "ni moliyalashtirdi.[279]

Butun musulmon dunyosida bolalardan tortib, yoshu keksalar uchun diniy muassasalar mavjud madrasalar Saudiya tomonidan moliyalashtirilgan yuqori darajadagi stipendiyalarga,[280]"kitoblar, stipendiyalar, do'stlik va masjidlar" (masalan, "1500 dan ortiq masjidlar qurilgan va so'nggi 50 yil ichida Saudiya davlat fondlaridan olingan pul bilan to'langan "),[281] ushbu universitetlarda, maktablarda, masjidlarda va hokazolarda o'qitishni va ishlashni davom ettirgan voizlar va o'qituvchilar uchun Qirollikda o'qitish bilan bir qatorda.[282]

Ushbu mablag 'saudiyaliklarning Islomni qat'iy talqin qilishiga rioya qilgan jurnalistlar va akademiklarni mukofotlash uchun ham ishlatilgan; va Misr atrofida sun'iy yo'ldosh shaharchalari qurilgan Al-Azhar universiteti, dunyodagi eng qadimiy va eng nufuzli islom universiteti.[283]

Ushbu mablag 'bilan targ'ib qilingan Islom dinini talqin qilish qat'iy, konservativ Saudiya Arabistoniga asoslangan edi Vahhobiylik yoki Salafizm. Eng qattiq shaklda u musulmonlar nafaqat "har doim" kofirlarga "qarshi turishlari, balki" ularni o'z dinlari uchun ... Alloh uchun nafratlantirishi "kerakligini," demokratiya "20-yilgi barcha dahshatli urushlar uchun mas'uldir. asr, "bu Shia vahhobiy bo'lmagan boshqa musulmonlar edi kofirlar, va boshqalar.[284] Garchi bu harakat hech qachon barchani, hatto aksariyat musulmonlarni Islomni vahhobiylik talqiniga aylantirmagan bo'lsa-da, bu mo''tadil mahalliy talqinlarni engish uchun juda ko'p ishlarni amalga oshirdi va Saudiya Arabistoni tomonidan talqin qilinadigan dinni "oltin standart" sifatida belgilab qo'ydi. ba'zi yoki ko'p musulmonlarning aqli.[285]

Qatar

Qatar Islomizmning davlat homiylari orasida ham ajralib turadi. So'nggi yigirma yil ichida mamlakat xalqaro harakatga yarim rasmiy homiylik ko'rsatdi Musulmon birodarlar. Sobiq Qatar shayxi Hamad bin Xalifa al-Tani Xususan, o'zini Musulmon Birodarlar va umuman Islomiy harakatlarning Yaqin Sharq mintaqasida va butun dunyoda eng sodiq tarafdorlaridan biri sifatida ko'rsatdi.[286]

1999 yilda Qatarda Musulmon Birodarlar partiyasi tarqatib yuborildi. Mamlakatning guruhni uzoq vaqtdan beri qo'llab-quvvatlashi ko'pincha Qatarda dinning rolini cheklaydigan strategik hisob-kitob bilan belgilanadi.[287] Jorjtaun universiteti Doxada joylashgan filiali Xalqaro va mintaqaviy tadqiqotlar markazi direktori Mehran Kamrava pozitsiyasini bildirar ekan, Qatar o'zini Musulmon Birodarlarning davlat homiysi sifatida ko'rsatishi Qatarda dinni "aniq" rol o'ynamasligiga olib keldi. yoki muxolifat hissiyotlarini shakllantirish. "[287]

Qatarning homiyligi, avvalambor, hukmron oilaning "Musulmon Birodarlar" ning eng ko'p vakillarini, xususan, qo'llab-quvvatlashi orqali namoyon bo'ldi Yusuf al-Qaradaviy. Qaradaviy taniqli, shu bilan birga munozarali sunniy voizi va ilohiyotshunos bo'lib, Musulmon Birodarlar ma'naviy etakchisi bo'lib xizmat qilmoqda. Misr fuqarosi Qoradaviy 1961 yilda Prezident hibsga olinganidan keyin Misrdan Qatarga qochgan Gamal Abdul Nosir. 1962 yilda u Qatarning O'rta dinshunoslik institutini boshqargan, 1977 yilda esa Shariat va Islomshunoslik kafedrasini tashkil etgan va unga rahbarlik qilgan. Qatar universiteti. U Qatardan biroz oldin Misrga qaytish uchun jo'nab ketdi 2011 yil Misr inqilobi.[288]

Yigirma yil davomida Qaradaviy Qatarda joylashgan media-kanalda "Shariat va hayot" nomli mashhur shouni olib bordi. Al-Jazira, hukumat Musulmon Birodarlar va islomiylikni qo'llab-quvvatlovchi kanalni homiylik qildi va ko'pincha Qatar hukumati uchun tashviqot vositasi sifatida tanildi.[289][290][291] Ushbu platformadan u hayot, siyosat va madaniyatga nisbatan islomiy va ko'pincha radikal qarashlarni targ'ib qildi.

Uning mavqei, shuningdek, ekstremistik va terroristik shaxslar va tashkilotlar bilan ziddiyatli aloqalari uni yaratdi persona non grata 1999, 2008 va 2012 yillarda AQSh, Buyuk Britaniya va Frantsiya hukumatlariga.[292][293]

Yussuf al-Qaradaviyga berilgan ko'rinish va siyosiy himoyadan tashqari, Qatar tarixiy ravishda Misr prezidentidan keyin bir necha musulmon birodarlarni qabul qilgan. Muhammad Mursiy, "Musulmon birodarlar" vakili 2013 yil iyul oyida ag'darilgan.[286] Ammo 2013 yilgacha Qatar Mursiy rahbariyatiga katta mablag 'kiritgan va Mursiy saylanganidan beri Misrga 10 million dollarga yaqin mablag' ajratgan, go'yo mamlakatda "siyosiy ustunlikni sotib olish" uchun.[294][295]

Qatarning Islomiy harakatlar va fraksiyalarni siyosiy va moliyaviy qo'llab-quvvatlashi faqat Misr ishi bilan chegaralanmagan. Qatar Liviya, Suriya va Yamandagi islomiy guruhlarni qo'llab-quvvatlagani ma'lum.

Xususan Liviyada Qatar Tripolida tashkil etilgan islomiy hukumatni qo'llab-quvvatladi.[296] Prezident Muammar Qaddafiyni hokimiyatdan ag'darilgan 2011 yilgi inqilob paytida Qatar, "Qaddafiyga qarshi isyonchilar va xususan islomiy jangarilarga" o'n millionlab dollarlik yordam, harbiy tayyorgarlik va 20 ming tonnadan ziyod qurol-yarog '"etkazib berdi. Qurollar oqimi Qaddafiy hukumati olib tashlanganidan keyin to'xtatilmadi.[297][298] Qatar o'z ta'sirini maydonda asosiy yordamchilar, jumladan ruhoniy Ali al-Sallabi, "17-fevral Katiba" islomiy militsiyasining etakchisi Ismoil al-Sallabiy va Tripoli harbiy kengashi rahbari Abdel Hakim Belxaj orqali saqlab qoldi.[297][298]

Hamas ham Qatarning moliyaviy ko'magi uchun asosiy foyda oluvchilar qatorida bo'lgan.[299] Fors ko'rfazi amirligi nafaqat XAMASning siyosiy byurosini 2012 yildan beri doimiy ravishda olib boradi; Hamas rahbari Xolid Meshal Qatar hududida xalqaro delegatsiyalar bilan tez-tez uchrashib turdi.[298]

Yaqinda Qatar o'zining rasmiy moliyaviy majburiyatidan foydalanib, Xamasning terroristik operatsiyalariga moddiy yordam ko'rsatdi G'azo qayta qurish. Asosan, "G'azoga yuk mashinalari bilan olib ketilayotgan qurilish materiallari" orqali Qatar G'azoga portlovchi moddalar ishlab chiqarish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lgan ikki tomonlama ishlatiladigan moddalarni tashladi.[300][301][302]

2003 yilda Al-Hayat Hamas siyosiy byurosiga bergan intervyusida Qatarni qo'llab-quvvatlashning aksariyati xayriya tashkilotlari va mashhur qo'mitalar orqali to'planganini e'lon qildi.[303] Qatarning eng yirik nodavlat tashkiloti Qatar Charity, xususan Qatarning butun dunyo bo'ylab islomchilarni qo'llab-quvvatlash missiyasida katta rol o'ynadi.

Rasmiy ravishda "Gait" tashabbusi bilan, shuningdek "Gait" dasturidan oldin ko'zga tashlangan xayriya mablag'lari hisobidan Qatar Charity butun dunyo bo'ylab masjidlar va madaniyat institutlarini qurish yoki rekonstruksiya qilishni moliyalashtirgan.[304] Xuddi Saudiya Arabistoni singari, Qatar ham tarqalishga katta kuch sarfladi Salafizm va uning qo'llab-quvvatlashidan foydalangan mamlakatlarda "ta'sir doiralarini yutib olish".[305][306] Frantsiyada, xususan, Qatar "Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkilotiga (UOIF)" norasmiy ravishda "Musulmon birodarlar" ning ushbu mamlakatdagi vakili sifatida faoliyat yuritadigan soyabon tashkiloti (Qatar Charity) orqali Nantdagi Assalom masjidiga mablag 'ajratdi (€). 4.4 million) va Mulhousedagi masjid (2 million evro).[306]

G'arbiy homiylik

Afg'on mujohidlari vakillari bilan Prezident Ronald Reygan da oq uy 1983 yilda.

1970-yillarda va ba'zida keyinchalik G'arb va G'arbga moyil hukumatlar ba'zida yangi paydo bo'lgan islomchilar va keyinchalik xavfli dushmanlar sifatida ko'ringan islomiy guruhlarni qo'llab-quvvatladilar.[307] G'arb hukumatlari islomchilarni o'sha paytda taxmin qilingan qo'riqlashlarni yanada xavfli deb hisoblashgan chap/kommunistik/millatchi islomchilar to'g'ri qarama-qarshi deb ko'rilgan isyonchilar / oppozitsiyalar. AQSh yordam uchun milliardlab dollar sarfladi mujohidlar Sovet Ittifoqining musulmon Afg'oniston dushmanlari va afg'on bo'lmaganlar faxriylar urush o'zlarining obro'si, "tajribasi, mafkurasi va qurollari" bilan uyga qaytdi va katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi.[308]

Garchi u Isroilning mavjud bo'lishiga kuchli qarshilik ko'rsatsa ham, HAMAS, 1987 yilda rasmiy ravishda yaratilgan bo'lib, uning kelib chiqishini 1970 va 1980 yillarda Isroil tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlangan muassasalar va ruhoniylar izlaydi. Isroil G'azodagi islomiy harakatlarga toqat qildi va qo'llab-quvvatladi Ahmed Yassin, chunki Isroil ularni dunyoviy va undan kuchliroq deb bilgan al-Fatoh bilan PLO.[309][310]

Misr prezidenti Anvar Sadat - Misrni G'arb sarmoyasi uchun ochish siyosati (infitah); Misr sadoqatini Sovet Ittifoqidan AQShga o'tkazish; va Isroil bilan tinchlik o'rnatish- islomchilarni qamoqdan ozod qildilar va uydagilarni chap tarafdorlarga qarshi kurashda siyosiy qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun sukut bilan almashdilar. Uning "islomiy harakatning paydo bo'lishini rag'batlantirishi" "keyingi yillarda ko'plab boshqa musulmon rahbarlari tomonidan taqlid qilingan" deyilgan. [311][312] Sadod va islomchilar o'rtasidagi bu "janoblar kelishuvi" 1975 yilda buzilgan, ammo islomchilar universitet talabalari kasaba uyushmalarida to'liq hukmronlik qilishidan oldin emas. Keyinchalik Sadat o'ldirildi va a dahshatli qo'zg'olon Misrda 1990-yillarda tashkil topgan. Shuningdek, Frantsiya hukumati "musulmon kuchlarini taqvodorlik va xayriya zonalariga yo'naltirish umidida" islomiy voizlarni targ'ib qilgani haqida xabar berilgan.[307]

G'arbning begonalashishi

Salafiy-islomiy namoyishlar qabul qilingan Islomga qarshi filmga qarshi Musulmonlarning aybsizligi Sidneyda, 2012 yil 15 sentyabr

Musulmonlarning begonalashishi G'arbiy usullari, shu jumladan uning siyosiy yo'llari.[313]

  • G'arb tsivilizatsiyasi kabi "muqobil" tsivilizatsiya tartibiga "qattiq qarshilik ko'rsatgan" Islom tsivilizatsiyasining ko'p asrlik "madaniy va institutsional yutuqlari" ning musulmon jamiyatlaridagi xotirasi,[314]
  • Musulmon dunyosining yadrosi Evropaga va xristian olamiga yaqinligi, u erda u avval fath qilgan, keyin fath qilingan. Iberiya sakkizinchi asrda Salib yurishlari XI asrda boshlangan, keyin asrlar davomida Usmonli imperiyasi, Evropa va Islom o'rtasidagi urush maydonlari edi.[315]
So'zlari bilan Bernard Lyuis:

Deyarli ming yil davomida, Ispaniyaga birinchi mavrlar qo'nishidan boshlab, Venaning ikkinchi turk qamaliga qadar Evropa Islom tomonidan doimiy tahdid ostida bo'lgan. Dastlabki asrlarda bu nafaqat bosqinchilik va istilo qilish, balki konversiya va assimilyatsiya tahdidi bo'lgan. Islom sohasidagi eng sharqiy viloyatlardan tashqari barcha hududlar xristian hukmdorlaridan olingan bo'lib, Eron va Arabistonning g'arbiy qismida joylashgan birinchi musulmonlarning aksariyati xristian dinini qabul qilganlar ... Ularning yo'qotilishi juda qattiq sezildi va shu kabi taqdir taqdiridan qo'rqishni kuchaytirdi. Evropa uchun do'konda edi.[316]

The Islom olami bu Evropa qo'rquvi va nafratidan xabardor edi[iqtibos kerak] va g'arbiylarning so'nggi texnologik ustunligidan o'z g'azabi va g'azabini his qildi,

abadiy o'qituvchilar; biz, abadiy talabalar. Avloddan avlodga o'tib, ushbu assimetriya an hosil qildi pastlik majmuasi, ularning yangiliklari biz o'zlashtira olmaydigan darajada tezroq rivojlanib borishi bilan abadiy kuchayib bormoqda. ... Kamchilik kompleksini a ga qaytarish uchun eng yaxshi vosita ustunlik kompleksi ... Islom butun madaniyatga qadr-qimmat tuyg'usini beradi.[317]

Islomchilar uchun G'arbning asosiy tahdidi siyosiy yoki iqtisodiy emas, madaniydir. Madaniy qaramlik birovning e'tiqodi va o'ziga xosligini yo'qotadi va shu bilan Islomni va islomiy jamoatni yo'q qiladi (ummat) siyosiy boshqaruvdan ancha samarali.[318]
  • Oxiri Sovuq urush va Sovet Ittifoqi Afg'onistonni ishg'ol qilishi umumiy ateistni yo'q qildi Kommunistik ba'zi diniy musulmonlarni va kapitalistik g'arbni birlashtirgan dushman.[319]

Javob

Tanqid

Islomizm yoki islomizm unsurlari tanqid qilindi: erkin fikr va shaxs huquqlarini tazyiq qilish, qat'iylik, ikkiyuzlamachilik, Islomni to'g'ri anglamaslik, noto'g'ri talqin qilish Qur'on va Sunnat, antisemitizm,[320] va Islomdagi yangiliklar uchun (bid'at), islomchilar tomonidan qilingan har qanday bunday yangilikka qarshi e'lon qilinganiga qaramay.

Qarama-qarshi javob

AQSh hukumati jangari islomizmga qarshi harakatlarni amalga oshirdi (Jihodizm), 2001 yildan beri. Ushbu harakatlar AQSh atrofida joylashgan xalq diplomatiyasi Davlat departamenti tomonidan olib boriladigan dasturlar. AQShda Jihodizmga putur etkazish bo'yicha o'ziga xos vazifani bajaradigan mustaqil agentlik tuzishga chaqiriqlar bo'lgan. Christian Whiton, rasmiy shaxs Jorj V.Bush ma'muriyati, mafkurani buzishga qaratilgan "siyosiy urush" ning zo'ravonliksiz amaliyotiga yo'naltirilgan yangi agentlikni chaqirdi.[321] AQSh Mudofaa vaziri Robert Geyts bekor qilinganga o'xshash narsani o'rnatishga chaqirdi AQSh axborot agentligidavrida kommunistik mafkurani buzishda ayblangan Sovuq urush.[322]

Partiyalar va tashkilotlar

Shuningdek qarang

Izohlar

  1. ^ Shu tariqa, salafiy jihodchiligi salafiylik jihodchilari tomonidan 20-asr o'rtalarida misol sifatida keltirilgan an'anaviy musulmon birodarligi o'rniga salafizm maqsadlariga o'xshash islomiy maqsadlarni nazarda tutadi, bu esa salafiy jihodchilar tomonidan haddan tashqari mo''tadil va bitiklarning tom ma'noda talqin qilinishida yo'q.[102]

Adabiyotlar

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  3. ^ a b Uilyam E. Shepard; FranÇois Burgat; Jeyms Piskatori; Armando Salvatore (2009). "Islomizm". John L. Esposito (tahrir). Islom dunyosining Oksford ensiklopediyasi. Oksford: Oksford universiteti matbuoti. ISBN 9780195305135. So'nggi yillarda "islomizm / islomchi" atamasi musulmonlarning Islom, aniqrog'i Islom shariati, insoniyat hayotining barcha sohalari, individual va ijtimoiy yo'nalishlari uchun ko'rsatma beradi, degan fikrlarini bildirish uchun tobora ko'payib bormoqda. shuning uchun "Islomiy davlat" yoki "Islomiy tartib" ni chaqiring. [...] Bugungi kunda bu "siyosiy islom" bilan bir qatorda "fundamentalist" ning tan olingan alternativalaridan biridir. [...] Amaldagi terminologiya odatda "islom", [...] va "islomizm" ni ajratib turadi, bu siyosat, musulmon diniga ochiq ishora qilishga moyil bo'lganlarning mafkurasini nazarda tutadi. [...] bu atama ko'pincha siyosiy ekstremizm, diniy mazhabparastlik yoki mutaassiblik tushunchalariga yaqin kvazi-jinoiy ma'noga ega bo'ldi. G'arbning asosiy ommaviy axborot vositalarida "islomchilar" - bu zo'ravonlik yo'li bilan "Islomiy davlat" tashkil etish yoki shar'iy (Islom diniy qonunlari) ni o'rnatmoqchi bo'lganlar - ko'pincha inson huquqlarini buzish yoki inson huquqlarini buzish sifatida qabul qilinadigan maqsadlar. ayollarning huquqlari. Musulmon dunyosida insayderlar ushbu atamani ijobiy ma'lumot sifatida ishlatishadi. Akademik sohada, u hali ham muhokama qilinayotgan bo'lsa-da, bu atama yanada murakkab hodisani anglatadi.
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